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Experiment number
  • If needed, multiple experiments were identified in a single publication based on differing sample types, isolation protocols and/or vesicle types of interest.
Species
  • Species of origin of the EVs.
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Experiment number
  • Experiments differ in Sample type, Isolation method
Experiment number
  • Experiments differ in Sample type
Experiment number
  • Experiments differ in Sample type
Details EV-TRACK ID Experiment nr. Species Sample type Isolation protocol First author Year EV-METRIC
EV180030 7/7 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Commercial method
dUC
Zhaohao Liao 2018 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhaohao Liao, Lorena Martin Jaular ORCID Icon, Estelle Soueidi, Mabel Jouve, Dillon C. Muth, Tine H. Schøyen, Tessa Seale, Norman J. Haughey, Matias Ostrowski, Clotilde Théry ORCID Icon & Kenneth W. Witwer
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was deve (show more...)Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was developed as a marker of reticulocyte EVs in the 1970s. Easily, quickly, and cheaply assayed, AChE activity has more recently been proposed as a generic marker for small extracellular vesicles (sEV) or exosomes, and as a negative marker of HIV-1 virions. To evaluate these proposed uses of AChE activity, we examined data from different EV and virus isolation methods using T-lymphocytic (H9, PM1 and Jurkat) and promonocytic (U937) cell lines grown in culture conditions that differed by serum content. When EVs were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation, no correlation between AChE activity and particle count was observed. AChE activity was detected in non-conditioned medium when serum was added, and most of this activity resided in soluble fractions and could not be pelleted by centrifugation. The serum-derived pelletable AChE protein was not completely eliminated from culture medium by overnight ultracentrifugation; however, a serum “extra-depletion” protocol, in which a portion of the supernatant was left undisturbed during harvesting, achieved near-complete depletion. In conditioned medium also, only small percentages of AChE activity could be pelleted together with particles. Furthermore, no consistent enrichment of AChE activity in sEV fractions was observed. Little if any AChE activity is produced by the cells we examined, and this activity was mainly present in non-vesicular structures, as shown by electron microscopy. Size-exclusion chromatography and iodixanol gradient separation showed that AChE activity overlaps only minimally with EV-enriched fractions. AChE activity likely betrays exposure to blood products and not EV abundance, echoing the MISEV 2014 and 2018 guidelines and other publications. Additional experiments may be merited to validate these results for other cell types and biological fluids other than blood. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Commercial method + dUC
Protein markers
EV: AChE/ CD63
non-EV:
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
primary red blood cells
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
50
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 45 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Commercial kit
qEV
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63
Other 1
Acetylcholinesterase assay
Detected EV-associated proteins
AChE
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Not Reported
EV concentration
Yes
EV180001 1/2 Homo sapiens Serum Commercial method
Filtration
Kwok HH 2018 12%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Kwok HH, Ning Z, Chong PW, Wan TS, Ng MH, Ho GYF, Ip MS, Lam DC
Journal
Cancer (basel)
Abstract
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation is an actionable mutation in lung adenocarcino (show more...)Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation is an actionable mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. Nonetheless tumour consists of heterogeneous cell subpopulations with diverse phenotypes and genotypes, and cancer cells can actively release extracellular vesicles (EVs) to modulate the phenotype of other cells in the tumour microenvironment. We hypothesized that EVs derived from a drug-resistant subpopulation of cells could induce drug resistance in recipient cells. We have established ALK-translocated lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and subclones. The subclones have been characterized and the expression of EV-RNAs determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effects of EV transfer on drug resistance were examined in vitro. Serum EV-RNA was assayed serially in two patients prescribed ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ALK-TKI) treatment. We demonstrated that the EVs from an ALK-TKI-resistant subclone could induce drug resistance in the originally sensitive subclone. EV-RNA profiling revealed that miRNAs miR-21-5p and miR-486-3p, and lncRNAs MEG3 and XIST were differentially expressed in the EVs secreted by the resistant subclones. These circulating EV-RNA levels have been found to correlate with disease progression of EML4-ALK-translocated lung adenocarcinoma in patients prescribed ALK-TKI treatment. The results from this study suggest that EVs released by a drug-resistant subpopulation can induce drug resistance in other subpopulations and may sustain intratumoural heterogeneity. (hide)
EV-METRIC
12% (48th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Serum
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Commercial method + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD63
non-EV: GP96
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function, Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Serum
Sample Condition
Control condition
Isolation Method
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Commercial kit
Exiqon miRCURY exosome isolation kit
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63
Not detected contaminants
GP96
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
84
EV180001 2/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Commercial method
Filtration
Kwok HH 2018 12%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Kwok HH, Ning Z, Chong PW, Wan TS, Ng MH, Ho GYF, Ip MS, Lam DC
Journal
Cancer (basel)
Abstract
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation is an actionable mutation in lung adenocarcino (show more...)Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation is an actionable mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. Nonetheless tumour consists of heterogeneous cell subpopulations with diverse phenotypes and genotypes, and cancer cells can actively release extracellular vesicles (EVs) to modulate the phenotype of other cells in the tumour microenvironment. We hypothesized that EVs derived from a drug-resistant subpopulation of cells could induce drug resistance in recipient cells. We have established ALK-translocated lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and subclones. The subclones have been characterized and the expression of EV-RNAs determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effects of EV transfer on drug resistance were examined in vitro. Serum EV-RNA was assayed serially in two patients prescribed ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ALK-TKI) treatment. We demonstrated that the EVs from an ALK-TKI-resistant subclone could induce drug resistance in the originally sensitive subclone. EV-RNA profiling revealed that miRNAs miR-21-5p and miR-486-3p, and lncRNAs MEG3 and XIST were differentially expressed in the EVs secreted by the resistant subclones. These circulating EV-RNA levels have been found to correlate with disease progression of EML4-ALK-translocated lung adenocarcinoma in patients prescribed ALK-TKI treatment. The results from this study suggest that EVs released by a drug-resistant subpopulation can induce drug resistance in other subpopulations and may sustain intratumoural heterogeneity. (hide)
EV-METRIC
12% (31st percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Commercial method + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD63
non-EV: GP96
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function, Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
FA34
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted serum
Preparation of EDS
Commercial EDS
Isolation Method
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Commercial kit
Exiqon miRCURY exosome isolation kit
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Bradford
Protein Concentration
50
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63
Not detected contaminants
GP96
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
109
EV180022 2/4 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Commercial method Kaur S 2018 0%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Kaur S, Abu-Shahba AG, Paananen RO, Hongisto H, Hiidenmaa H, Skottman H, Seppänen-Kaijansinkko R, Mannerström B
Journal
J Cell Sci
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are reported to be involved in stem cell maintenance, self-renewal, and (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are reported to be involved in stem cell maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. Due to their bioactive cargoes influencing cell fate and function, interest in EVs in regenerative medicine has rapidly increased. EV-derived small non-coding RNA mimic the functions of the parent stem cells, regulating the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells, controlling the intercellular regulation of gene expression, and eventually affecting the cell fate. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to provide a comprehensive overview of the expression profiles of small non-coding transcripts carried by the EVs derived from human adipose tissue stromal/stem cells (AT-MSCs) and human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). Both hPSCs and AT-MSCs were characterized and their EVs were extracted using standard protocols. Small non-coding RNA sequencing from EVs showed that hPSCs and AT-MSCs showed distinct profiles, unique for each stem cell source. Interestingly, in hPSCs, most abundant miRNAs were from specific miRNA families regulating pluripotency, reprogramming and differentiation (miR-17-92, mir-200, miR-302/367, miR-371/373, CM19 microRNA cluster). For the AT-MSCs, the highly expressed miRNAs were found to be regulating osteogenesis (let-7/98, miR-10/100, miR-125, miR-196, miR-199, miR-615-3p, mir-22-3p, mir-24-3p, mir-27a-3p, mir-193b-5p, mir-195-3p). Additionally, abundant small nuclear and nucleolar RNA were detected in hPSCs, whereas Y- and tRNA were found in AT-MSCs. Identification of EV-miRNA and non-coding RNA signatures released by these stem cells will provide clues towards understanding their role in intracellular communication, and well as their roles in maintaining the stem cell niche. (hide)
EV-METRIC
0% (median: 22% of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Commercial method
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Identification of content (omics approaches), Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted serum
Preparation of EDS
>=18h at >= 100,000g
Cell viability
80
Isolation Method
Commercial kit
miRCURY Exosome Isolation Kit (Exiqon A/S, Vedbaek, Denmark)
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
EV170015 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
Filtration
Polymer-based precipitation
Tabak, Saray 2018 0%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Tabak S, Schreiber-Avissar S, Beit-Yannai E.
Journal
J Cell Mol Med
Abstract
The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as signal mediators has been described in many biological f (show more...)The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as signal mediators has been described in many biological fields. How many EVs are needed to deliver the desired physiological signal is yet unclear. Using a normal trabecular meshwork (NTM) cell culture exposed to non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE)-derived EVs, a relevant model for studying the human ocular drainage system, we addressed the EVs dose-response effects on the Wnt signaling. The objective of the study was to investigate the dosing effects of NPCE-derived EVs on TM Wnt signaling. EVs were isolated by PEG 8000 method from NPCE and RPE cells (used as controls) conditioned media. Concentrations were determined by Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing method. Various exosomes concentration were incubated with TM cells, for the determination of mRNA (β-Catenin, Axin2 and LEF1) and protein (β-Catenin, GSK-3β) expression using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Exposure of NTM cells for 8 hrs to low EVs concentrations was associated with a significant decreased expression of β-Catenin, GSK-3β, as opposed to exposure to high exosomal concentrations. Pro-MMP9 and MMP9 activities were significantly enhanced in NTM cells treated with high EV concentrations of (X10) as compared to low EV concentrations of either NPCE- or RPE-derived EVs and to untreated control. Our data support the concept that EVs biological effects are concentration-dependent at their target site. Specifically in the present study, we described a general dose-response at the gene and MMPs activity and a different dose-response regarding key canonical Wnt proteins expression. (hide)
EV-METRIC
0% (median: 22% of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Filtration + Polymer-based precipitation
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
NPCE cells
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted serum
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Other
Name other isolation method
50% PEG-8000, 0.5M NaCl, mixed with the conditioned medium 1:5 v/v respectively and incubated overnight at 4°C. The mixtures were centrifuged at 1500g for 30 minutes to pellet the EVs.
Protein Concentration Method
Bradford
Characterization: Particle analysis
TRPS
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
98±10
EV concentration
Yes
Extra information
The precipated pellet containing the EVs was re-suspended in PBS and pelleted by ultra-centrifugation of 100,000g for 70 minutes at 4°C. The final EVs pelleted were suspended in 1mL PBS and were stored at -80˚C till use.
EV170015 2/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
Filtration
Polymer-based precipitation
Tabak, Saray 2018 0%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Tabak S, Schreiber-Avissar S, Beit-Yannai E.
Journal
J Cell Mol Med
Abstract
The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as signal mediators has been described in many biological f (show more...)The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as signal mediators has been described in many biological fields. How many EVs are needed to deliver the desired physiological signal is yet unclear. Using a normal trabecular meshwork (NTM) cell culture exposed to non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE)-derived EVs, a relevant model for studying the human ocular drainage system, we addressed the EVs dose-response effects on the Wnt signaling. The objective of the study was to investigate the dosing effects of NPCE-derived EVs on TM Wnt signaling. EVs were isolated by PEG 8000 method from NPCE and RPE cells (used as controls) conditioned media. Concentrations were determined by Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing method. Various exosomes concentration were incubated with TM cells, for the determination of mRNA (β-Catenin, Axin2 and LEF1) and protein (β-Catenin, GSK-3β) expression using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Exposure of NTM cells for 8 hrs to low EVs concentrations was associated with a significant decreased expression of β-Catenin, GSK-3β, as opposed to exposure to high exosomal concentrations. Pro-MMP9 and MMP9 activities were significantly enhanced in NTM cells treated with high EV concentrations of (X10) as compared to low EV concentrations of either NPCE- or RPE-derived EVs and to untreated control. Our data support the concept that EVs biological effects are concentration-dependent at their target site. Specifically in the present study, we described a general dose-response at the gene and MMPs activity and a different dose-response regarding key canonical Wnt proteins expression. (hide)
EV-METRIC
0% (median: 22% of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Filtration + Polymer-based precipitation
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
RPE cells
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted serum
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Other
Name other isolation method
50% PEG-8000, 0.5M NaCl, mixed with the conditioned medium 1:5 v/v respectively and incubated overnight at 4°C. The mixtures were centrifuged at 1500g for 30 minutes to pellet the EVs.
Protein Concentration Method
Bradford
Characterization: Particle analysis
TRPS
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
128±11
EV concentration
Yes
Extra information
The precipated pellet containing the EVs was re-suspended in PBS and pelleted by ultra-centrifugation of 100,000g for 70 minutes at 4°C. The final EVs pelleted were suspended in 1mL PBS and were stored at -80˚C till use.
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