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Experiment number
  • If needed, multiple experiments were identified in a single publication based on differing sample types, isolation protocols and/or vesicle types of interest.
Species
  • Species of origin of the EVs.
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
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  • Experiments differ in Sample type
Details EV-TRACK ID Experiment nr. Species Sample type Isolation protocol First author Year EV-METRIC
EV110096 1/1 Homo sapiens Urine 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Hiemstra TF 2011 29%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Hiemstra TF, Charles PD, Hester SS, Karet FE, Lilley KS
Journal
J Biomol Tech
Abstract
Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have encouraged interest in its deployment in urine biomarker stu (show more...)Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have encouraged interest in its deployment in urine biomarker studies, but success has been limited. Urine exosomes have been proposed as an ideal source of biomarkers for renal disease. However, the abundant urinary protein, uromodulin, cofractionates with exosomes during isolation and represents a practical contaminant that limits MS sensitivity. Uromodulin depletion has been attempted but is labor- and time-intensive and may remove important protein biomarkers. We describe the application of an exclusion list (ExL) of uromodulin-related peptide ions, coupled with high-sensitivity mass spectrometric analysis, to increase the depth of coverage of the urinary exosomal proteome. Urine exosomal protein samples from healthy volunteers were subjected to tandem MS and abundant uromodulin peptides identified. Samples were run for a second time, while excluding these uromodulin peptides from fragmentation to allow identification of peptides from lower-abundance proteins. Uromodulin exclusion was performed in addition to dynamic exclusion. Results from these two procedures revealed 222 distinct proteins from conventional analysis, compared with 254 proteins after uromodulin exclusion, of which 188 were common to both methods. By unmasking a previously unidentified protein set, adding the ExL increased overall protein identifications by 29.7% to a total of 288 proteins. A fixed ExL, used in combination with conventional methods, effectively increases the depth of urinary exosomal proteins identified by MS, reducing the need for uromodulin depletion. (hide)
EV-METRIC
29% (65th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Adj. k-factor
60.07 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
135
Pelleting: rotor type
45Ti
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
60.07
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
EV110091 1/1 Gallus gallus Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Del Cacho E 2011 29%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Del Cacho E, Gallego M, Lee SH, Lillehoj HS, Quilez J, Lillehoj EP, Sánchez-Acedo C
Journal
Vaccine
Abstract
Current methods for sustainable control of avian coccidiosis, whether by prophylactic medication or (show more...)Current methods for sustainable control of avian coccidiosis, whether by prophylactic medication or parasite vaccination, are suboptimal. In this study, we describe an alternative immunization strategy against Eimeria tenella infection using parasite antigen (Ag)-loaded dendritic cells (DCs), or their derived exosomes, in the absence of free Ag. CD45(+) intestinal DCs were isolated from E. tenella-infected chickens and loaded ex vivo with an extract of sporozoites as parasite Ag. Extracellular vesicles purified from the Ag-pulsed DCs expressed surface proteins associated with DC-derived exosomes, including major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC I and MHC II), CD80, flotillin, and heat shock protein (HSP70). Following intramuscular immunization of chickens with Ag-pulsed DCs or Ag-pulsed DC-derived exosomes, Ag-containing cells were observed diffusely localized in the lymphoid tissue and concentrated in germinal centers of caecal tonsils, and restricted to germinal centers (GC) in the spleen. Chickens immunized with pulsed DCs or exosomes exhibited (a) higher numbers of caecal tonsil and spleen cells expressing IgG and/or IgA antibodies that were reactive with E. tenella Ag, (b) greater numbers of IL-2-, IL-16-, and IFN-?-producing cells, and (c) higher E. tenella Ag-driven cell proliferation, compared with chickens immunized with Ag in the absence of DCs or exosomes. Chickens immunized with Ag-pulsed DCs or Ag-pulsed DC-derived exosomes and subsequently given a live E. tenella challenge infection at 10d post-immunization displayed (a) increased body weight gains, (b) decreased feed conversion ratios, (c) reduced fecal oocyst shedding, (d) diminished intestinal lesions, and (e) lower mortality, compared with animals given Ag alone. This is the first demonstration of Ag-specific protective immunity against avian coccidiosis using parasite Ag-loaded DCs or DC-derived exosomes. (hide)
EV-METRIC
29% (68th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Adj. k-factor
122.2 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Gallus gallus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
70.1Ti
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
122.2
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM/ immune EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110059 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Density cushion Sahoo S 2011 25%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Sahoo S, Klychko E, Thorne T, Misener S, Schultz KM, Millay M, Ito A, Liu T, Kamide C, Agrawal H, Perlman H, Qin G, Kishore R, Losordo DW
Journal
Circ Res
Abstract
RATIONALE: Transplantation of human CD34(+) stem cells to ischemic tissues has been associated with (show more...)RATIONALE: Transplantation of human CD34(+) stem cells to ischemic tissues has been associated with reduced angina, improved exercise time, and reduced amputation rates in phase 2 clinical trials and has been shown to induce neovascularization in preclinical models. Previous studies have suggested that paracrine factors secreted by these proangiogenic cells are responsible, at least in part, for the angiogenic effects induced by CD34(+) cell transplantation. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the mechanism of CD34(+) stem cell-induced proangiogenic paracrine effects and to examine if exosomes, a component of paracrine secretion, are involved. METHODS AND RESULTS: Exosomes collected from the conditioned media of mobilized human CD34(+) cells had the characteristic size (40 to 90 nm; determined by dynamic light scattering), cup-shaped morphology (electron microscopy), expressed exosome-marker proteins CD63, phosphatidylserine (flow cytometry) and TSG101 (immunoblotting), besides expressing CD34(+) cell lineage marker protein, CD34. In vitro, CD34(+) exosomes replicated the angiogenic activity of CD34(+) cells by increasing endothelial cell viability, proliferation, and tube formation on Matrigel. In vivo, the CD34(+) exosomes stimulated angiogenesis in Matrigel plug and corneal assays. Interestingly, exosomes from CD34(+) cells but not from CD34(+) cell-depleted mononuclear cells had angiogenic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that human CD34(+) cells secrete exosomes that have independent angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. CD34(+) exosomes may represent a significant component of the paracrine effect of progenitor cell transplantation for therapeutic angiogenesis. (hide)
EV-METRIC
25% (64th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density cushion
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ TSG101
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ TSG101
Characterization: Particle analysis
DLS
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110102 1/2 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
Density cushion (valid.)
dUC
Martin-Jaular L 2011 25%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Martin-Jaular L, Nakayasu ES, Ferrer M, Almeida IC, Del Portillo HA
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released after the fusion of m (show more...)Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released after the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the plasma membrane. While initial studies suggested that the role of exosomes was limited to the removal of proteins during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes, recent studies indicate that they are produced by different types of cells and are involved in promoting inter-cellular communication and antigen presentation. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of exosomes from peripheral blood of BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal Plasmodium yoelii 17X strain. Importantly, proteomic analysis revealed the presence of parasite proteins in these vesicles. Moreover, immunization of mice with purified exosomes elicited IgG antibodies capable of recognizing P. yoelii-infected red blood cells. Furthermore, lethal challenge of immunized mice with the normocyte-prone lethal P. yoelii 17XL strain caused a significant attenuation in the course of parasitaemia, increased survival time, and altered the cell tropism to reticulocytes. These results were obtained also when the exosomes were isolated from a P. yoelii-infected reticulocyte culture indicating that reticulocyte-derived exosomes carry antigens and are involved in immune modulation. Moreover, inclusion of CpG ODN 1826 in exosome immunizations elicited IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies and promoted survival, clearance of parasites and subsequent sterile protection of 83% of the animals challenged with P. yoelli 17XL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses elicited by exosomes derived from reticulocytes opening new avenues for the modulation of anti-malaria responses. (hide)
EV-METRIC
25% (64th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + Density cushion (valid.) + dUC
Protein markers
EV: LAMP1/ TFRC
non-EV: "MHC2/ CD3/ CD41"
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1/ TFRC
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1/ TFRC
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110102 2/2 Mus musculus Blood plasma 0.2 µm filter
Density cushion (valid.)
dUC
Martin-Jaular L 2011 25%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Martin-Jaular L, Nakayasu ES, Ferrer M, Almeida IC, Del Portillo HA
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released after the fusion of m (show more...)Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released after the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the plasma membrane. While initial studies suggested that the role of exosomes was limited to the removal of proteins during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes, recent studies indicate that they are produced by different types of cells and are involved in promoting inter-cellular communication and antigen presentation. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of exosomes from peripheral blood of BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal Plasmodium yoelii 17X strain. Importantly, proteomic analysis revealed the presence of parasite proteins in these vesicles. Moreover, immunization of mice with purified exosomes elicited IgG antibodies capable of recognizing P. yoelii-infected red blood cells. Furthermore, lethal challenge of immunized mice with the normocyte-prone lethal P. yoelii 17XL strain caused a significant attenuation in the course of parasitaemia, increased survival time, and altered the cell tropism to reticulocytes. These results were obtained also when the exosomes were isolated from a P. yoelii-infected reticulocyte culture indicating that reticulocyte-derived exosomes carry antigens and are involved in immune modulation. Moreover, inclusion of CpG ODN 1826 in exosome immunizations elicited IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies and promoted survival, clearance of parasites and subsequent sterile protection of 83% of the animals challenged with P. yoelli 17XL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses elicited by exosomes derived from reticulocytes opening new avenues for the modulation of anti-malaria responses. (hide)
EV-METRIC
25% (71st percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + Density cushion (valid.) + dUC
Protein markers
EV: LAMP1/ TFRC
non-EV: "CD401/ CD133"
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1/ TFRC
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1/ TFRC
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110036 1/2 Homo sapiens Placenta dUC Dragovic RA 2011 25%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Dragovic RA, Gardiner C, Brooks AS, Tannetta DS, Ferguson DJ, Hole P, Carr B, Redman CW, Harris AL, Dobson PJ, Harrison P, Sargent IL
Journal
Nanomedicine
Abstract
Cellular microvesicles and nanovesicles (exosomes) are involved in many disease processes and have m (show more...)Cellular microvesicles and nanovesicles (exosomes) are involved in many disease processes and have major potential as biomarkers. However, developments in this area are constrained by limitations in the technology available for their measurement. Here we report on the use of fluorescence nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) to rapidly size and phenotype cellular vesicles. In this system vesicles are visualized by light scattering using a light microscope. A video is taken, and the NTA software tracks the brownian motion of individual vesicles and calculates their size and total concentration. Using human placental vesicles and plasma, we have demonstrated that NTA can measure cellular vesicles as small as ? 50 nm and is far more sensitive than conventional flow cytometry (lower limit ? 300 nm). By combining NTA with fluorescence measurement we have demonstrated that vesicles can be labeled with specific antibody-conjugated quantum dots, allowing their phenotype to be determined.FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: The authors of this study utilized fluorescence nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) to rapidly size and phenotype cellular vesicles, demonstrating that NTA is far more sensitive than conventional flow cytometry. (hide)
EV-METRIC
25% (75th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Placenta
Focus vesicles
Vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: NDOG2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Placenta
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
NDOG2
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
NDOG2
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM/ immune EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV110034 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
Density cushion
UF
Bu N 2011 25%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Bu N, Wu H, Sun B, Zhang G, Zhan S, Zhang R, Zhou L
Journal
J Neurooncol
Abstract
In this study, we demonstrate that tumor-derived exosome-loaded dendritic cells can elicit a specifi (show more...)In this study, we demonstrate that tumor-derived exosome-loaded dendritic cells can elicit a specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against autologous tumor cells in patients with malignant glioma. Exosomes were purified by ultrafiltration centrifugation and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. Exosomes had antigen-presenting molecules (MHC-I, HSP70), tumor antigen (MAGE-1) and adherent molecule (ICAM-1). After incubation with exosomes, the dendritic cells (DCs) could activate the T lymphocytes to become glioma-specialized CTL. The CTL had vigorous cytotoxicity to glioma cells as opposed to autologous lymphoblast cells. These data demonstrate that tumor exosome-loaded DC can be an effective tool in inducing glioma-specific CD8(+) CTLs able to kill autologous glioma cells in vitro. In conclusion, exosomes are a natural and new source of tumor-rejection antigens, opening up new avenues for immunization against glioma. (hide)
EV-METRIC
25% (64th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + Density cushion + UF
Protein markers
EV: HSP70/ Beta-actin
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
HSP70/ Beta-actin
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Beta-actin
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
immune EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110076 2/3 Homo sapiens Blood plasma SEC Arroyo JD 2011 25%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Arroyo JD, Chevillet JR, Kroh EM, Ruf IK, Pritchard CC, Gibson DF, Mitchell PS, Bennett CF, Pogosova-Agadjanyan EL, Stirewalt DL, Tait JF, Tewari M
Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in the bloodstream in a highly stable, extracellular form and are being (show more...)MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in the bloodstream in a highly stable, extracellular form and are being developed as blood-based biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. However, the mechanism underlying their remarkable stability in the RNase-rich environment of blood is not well understood. The current model in the literature posits that circulating miRNAs are protected by encapsulation in membrane-bound vesicles such as exosomes, but this has not been systematically studied. We used differential centrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography as orthogonal approaches to characterize circulating miRNA complexes in human plasma and serum. We found, surprisingly, that the majority of circulating miRNAs cofractionated with protein complexes rather than with vesicles. miRNAs were also sensitive to protease treatment of plasma, indicating that protein complexes protect circulating miRNAs from plasma RNases. Further characterization revealed that Argonaute2 (Ago2), the key effector protein of miRNA-mediated silencing, was present in human plasma and eluted with plasma miRNAs in size-exclusion chromatography. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation of Ago2 from plasma readily recovered non-vesicle-associated plasma miRNAs. The majority of miRNAs studied copurified with the Ago2 ribonucleoprotein complex, but a minority of specific miRNAs associated predominantly with vesicles. Our results reveal two populations of circulating miRNAs and suggest that circulating Ago2 complexes are a mechanism responsible for the stability of plasma miRNAs. Our study has important implications for the development of biomarker approaches based on capture and analysis of circulating miRNAs. In addition, identification of extracellular Ago2-miRNA complexes in plasma raises the possibility that cells release a functional miRNA-induced silencing complex into the circulation. (hide)
EV-METRIC
25% (71st percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Focus vesicles
Vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
SEC
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: Ago2
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected contaminants
Ago2
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110072 1/1 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant dUC Zhang H 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhang H, Xie Y, Li W, Chibbar R, Xiong S, Xiang J
Journal
Cell Mol Immunol
Abstract
T cells secrete bioactive exosomes (EXO), but the potential immunoregulatory effect of T-cell EXO is (show more...)T cells secrete bioactive exosomes (EXO), but the potential immunoregulatory effect of T-cell EXO is largely unknown. In this study, we generated activated ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4(+) T cells in vitro via coculture of OVA-pulsed dendritic cells (DC(OVA)) with naive CD4(+) T cells derived from OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OTII mice. CD4(+) T-cell EXO were then purified from the CD4(+) T-cell culture supernatants by differential ultracentrifugation. CD4(+) T-cell EXO exhibited the 'saucer' shape that is characteristic of EXO with a diameter between 50 and 100 nm, as assessed by electron microscopy, and contained the EXO-associated proteins LAMP-1, TCR and lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as determined by western blot. Flow cytometric analysis showed that CD4(+) T-cell EXO expressed CD4(+) T-cell markers (CD4, TCR, LFA-1, CD25 and Fas ligand), but to a lesser extent than CD4(+) T cells. We demonstrated that DC(OVA) took up CD4(+) T-cell EXO via peptide/major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) II/TCR and CD54/LFA-1 interactions. OVA-specific CD4(+) T-cell EXO from OTII mice, but not ConA-stimulated polyclonal CD4(+) T-cell EXO from wild-type C57BL/6 mice inhibited DC(OVA)-stimulated in vitro CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and in vivo CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses and antitumor immunity against OVA-expressing B16 melanoma BL6-10(OVA) cells. In addition, EXO derived from a T-cell hybridoma cell line, MF72.2D9, expressing an OVA-specific CD4(+) TCR, had a similar inhibitory effect as OTII CD4(+) T-cell EXO on CTL-mediated antitumor immunity. Taken together, our data indicate that antigen-specific T-cell EXO may serve as a new type of immunosuppressive reagent for use in transplant rejection and treatment of autoimmune diseases. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: LAMP1/ TCR/ LFA1
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1/ TCR/ LFA1
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1/ TCR/ LFA1
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110119 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Yang M 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Yang M, Li Y, Chilukuri K, Brady OA, Boulos MI, Kappes JC, Galileo DS
Journal
J Neurooncol
Abstract
The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been shown or implicated to function i (show more...)The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been shown or implicated to function in stimulation of cell motility in several cancer types, including high-grade gliomas. Our previous work demonstrated the expression and function of L1 protein in stimulation of cell motility in rat glioma cells. However, the mechanism of this stimulation is still unclear. This study further investigated the function of L1 and L1 proteolysis in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell migration and invasion, as well as the mechanism of this stimulation. L1 mRNA was found to be present in human T98G GBM cell line but not in U-118 MG grade III human glioma cell line. L1 protein expression, proteolysis, and release were found in T98G cells and human surgical GBM cells by Western blotting. Exosome-like vesicles released by T98G cells were purified and contained full-length L1. In a scratch assay, T98G cells that migrated into the denuded scratch area exhibited upregulation of ADAM10 protease expression coincident with loss of surface L1. GBM surgical specimen cells exhibited a similar loss of cell surface L1 when xenografted into the chick embryo brain. When lentivirally introduced shRNA was used to attenuate L1 expression, such T98G/shL1 cells exhibited significantly decreased cell motility by time lapse microscopy in our quantitative Super Scratch assay. These cells also showed a decrease in FAK activity and exhibited increased focal complexes. L1 binding integrins which activate FAK were found in T98G and U-118 MG cells. Addition of L1 ectodomain-containing media (1) rescued the decreased cell motility of T98G/shL1 cells and (2) increased cell motility of U-118 MG cells but (3) did not further increase T98G cell motility. Injection of L1-attenuated T98G/shL1 cells into embryonic chick brains resulted in the absence of detectable invasion compared to control cells which invaded brain tissue. These studies support a mechanism where glioma cells at the edge of a cell mass upregulate ADAM10 to proteolyze surface L1 and the resultant ectodomain increases human glioma cell migration and invasion by binding to integrin receptors, activating FAK, and increasing turnover of focal complexes. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Adj. k-factor
255.8 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ NCAML1/ ADAM10/ UJ127
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
1320
Pelleting: rotor type
SW41
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
255.8
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
TSG101/ NCAML1/ ADAM10/ UJ127
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
NCAML1/ ADAM10/ UJ127
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110069 1/1 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant dUC
Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Wang S 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Wang S, Cesca F, Loers G, Schweizer M, Buck F, Benfenati F, Schachner M, Kleene R
Journal
J Neurosci
Abstract
Oligomannosidic glycans play important roles in nervous system development and function. By performi (show more...)Oligomannosidic glycans play important roles in nervous system development and function. By performing a phage display screening with oligomannose-specific antibodies, we identified an oligomannose-mimicking peptide that was functionally active in modulating neurite outgrowth and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. Using the oligomannose-mimicking peptide in crosslinking experiments, synapsin I was identified as a novel oligomannose-binding protein in mouse brain. Further analyses not only verified that synapsin I is an oligomannose-binding lectin, but also indicated that it is a glycoprotein carrying oligomannose and Lewis(x). We also found that synapsin I is expressed in glia-enriched cultures and is released from glial cells via exosomes. Incubation of glial-derived exosomes in the presence of high KCl concentrations or subjecting glial cell cultures to either oxygen/glucose deprivation or hydrogen peroxide resulted in release of synapsin I from exosomes. Application of synapsin I promoted neurite outgrowth from hippocampal neurons and increased survival of cortical neurons upon hydrogen peroxide treatment or oxygen/glucose deprivation. Coculture experiments using wild-type hippocampal neurons and wild-type or synapsin-deficient glial cells showed enhanced neurite outgrowth when synapsin was expressed by glial cells. Synapsin-induced neurite outgrowth was dependent on oligomannose on synapsin I and the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM at the neuronal cell surface. The data indicate that, under conditions of high neuronal activity and/or oxidative stress, synapsin can be released from glial-derived exosomes and promotes neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival by modulating the interactions between glia and neurons. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ HSC70/ GAPDH/ Beta-actin/ Flotillin
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
180
Density gradient
Only used for validation of main results
1
Lowest density fraction
0.25
Highest density fraction
2.5
Orientation
Bottom-up
Speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ HSC70/ GAPDH/ Beta-actin/ Flotillin
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
HSC70/ GAPDH/ Beta-actin/ Flotillin
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110052 1/1 Burkholderia pseudomallei Bacteria 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Iodixanol-DG
UF
Nieves W 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Nieves W, Asakrah S, Qazi O, Brown KA, Kurtz J, Aucoin DP, McLachlan JB, Roy CJ, Morici LA
Journal
Vaccine
Abstract
Burkholderia pseudomallei, and other members of the Burkholderia, are among the most antibiotic-resi (show more...)Burkholderia pseudomallei, and other members of the Burkholderia, are among the most antibiotic-resistant bacterial species encountered in human infection. Mortality rates associated with severe B. pseudomallei infection approach 50% despite therapeutic treatment. A protective vaccine against B. pseudomallei would dramatically reduce morbidity and mortality in endemic areas and provide a safeguard for the U.S. and other countries against biological attack with this organism. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of B. pseudomallei-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Vesicles are produced by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and contain many of the bacterial products recognized by the host immune system during infection. We demonstrate that subcutaneous (SC) immunization with OMVs provides significant protection against an otherwise lethal B. pseudomallei aerosol challenge in BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with B. pseudomallei OMVs displayed OMV-specific serum antibody and T-cell memory responses. Furthermore, OMV-mediated immunity appears species-specific as cross-reactive antibody and T cells were not generated in mice immunized with Escherichia coli-derived OMVs. These results provide the first compelling evidence that OMVs represent a non-living vaccine formulation that is able to produce protective humoral and cellular immunity against an aerosolized intracellular bacterium. This vaccine platform constitutes a safe and inexpensive immunization strategy against B. pseudomallei that can be exploited for other intracellular respiratory pathogens, including other Burkholderia and bacteria capable of establishing persistent infection. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (71st percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Bacteria
Focus vesicles
OMV
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + Iodixanol-DG + UF
Protein markers
EV: LPS/ CPS
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Burkholderia pseudomallei
Sample Type
Bacteria
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
20
Density gradient
Lowest density fraction
20
Highest density fraction
40
Orientation
Bottom-up
Speed (g)
110000
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
LPS/ CPS
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
LPS/ CPS
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
cryo EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110051 1/1 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant dUC Nanjundappa RH 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Nanjundappa RH, Wang R, Xie Y, Umeshappa CS, Chibbar R, Wei Y, Liu Q, Xiang J
Journal
Vaccine
Abstract
The limitations of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have necessitated the development o (show more...)The limitations of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have necessitated the development of alternative therapeutics. In this study, we generated ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed and pcDNAgp120-transfected dendritic cell (DC)-released exosomes (EXOova and EXOgp120) and ConA-stimulated C57BL/6 CD8(+) T cells. OVA- and Gp120-Texo vaccines were generated from CD8(+) T cells with uptake of EXOova and EXOgp120, respectively. We demonstrate that OVA-Texo stimulates in vitro and in vivo OVA-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses leading to long-term immunity against OVA-expressing BL6-10(OVA) melanoma. Interestingly, CD8(+) T cell responses are DC and CD4(+) T cell independent. Importantly, Gp120-Texo also stimulates Gp120-specific CTL responses and long-term immunity against Gp120-expressing B16 melanoma. Therefore, this novel HIV-1-specific EXO-targeted Gp120-Texo vaccine may be useful in induction of efficient CTL responses in AIDS patients with DC dysfunction and CD4(+) T cell deficiency. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: CD54/ CD80/ LAMP1
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD54/ CD80/ LAMP1
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD54/ CD80/ LAMP1
Flow cytometry specific beads
Selected surface protein(s)
Yes
Characterization: Particle analysis
Particle analysis: flow cytometry
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110046 2/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Koumangoye RB 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Koumangoye RB, Sakwe AM, Goodwin JS, Patel T, Ochieng J
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Exosomes are nano-vesicles secreted by a wide range of mammalian cell types. These vesicles are abun (show more...)Exosomes are nano-vesicles secreted by a wide range of mammalian cell types. These vesicles are abundant in serum and other extracellular fluids and contain a large repertoire of proteins, mRNA and microRNA. Exosomes have been implicated in cell to cell communication, the transfer of infectious agents, and neurodegenerative diseases as well as tumor progression. However, the precise mechanisms by which they are internalized and/or secreted remain poorly understood. In order to follow their release and uptake in breast tumor cells in real time, cell-derived exosomes were tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CD63 while human serum exosomes were rhodamine isothiocynate-labeled. We show that detachment of adherent cells from various substrata induces a rapid and substantial secretion of exosomes, which then concentrate on the cell surfaces and mediate adhesion to various extracellular matrix proteins. We also demonstrate that disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M?CD) inhibits the internalization of exosomes and that annexins are essential for the exosomal uptake mechanisms. Taken together, these data suggest that cellular detachment is accompanied by significant release of exosomes while cellular adhesion and spreading are enhanced by rapid uptake and disposition of exosomes on the cell surface. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ HSP90/ LAMP1
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Density gradient
Only used for validation of main results
1
Lowest density fraction
10
Highest density fraction
60
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ HSP90/ LAMP1
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110010 2/2 Homo sapiens "Cerebrospinal fluid" 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Hasegawa T 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Hasegawa T, Konno M, Baba T, Sugeno N, Kikuchi A, Kobayashi M, Miura E, Tanaka N, Tamai K, Furukawa K, Arai H, Mori F, Wakabayashi K, Aoki M, Itoyama Y, Takeda A
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Many neurodegenerative diseases share a common pathological feature: the deposition of amyloid-like (show more...)Many neurodegenerative diseases share a common pathological feature: the deposition of amyloid-like fibrils composed of misfolded proteins. Emerging evidence suggests that these proteins may spread from cell-to-cell and encourage the propagation of neurodegeneration in a prion-like manner. Here, we demonstrated that ?-synuclein (?SYN), a principal culprit for Lewy pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD), was present in endosomal compartments and detectably secreted into the extracellular milieu. Unlike prion protein, extracellular ?SYN was mainly recovered in the supernatant fraction rather than in exosome-containing pellets from the neuronal culture medium and cerebrospinal fluid. Surprisingly, impaired biogenesis of multivesicular body (MVB), an organelle from which exosomes are derived, by dominant-negative mutant vacuolar protein sorting 4 (VPS4) not only interfered with lysosomal targeting of ?SYN but facilitated ?SYN secretion. The hypersecretion of ?SYN in VPS4-defective cells was efficiently restored by the functional disruption of recycling endosome regulator Rab11a. Furthermore, both brainstem and cortical Lewy bodies in PD were found to be immunoreactive for VPS4. Thus, VPS4, a master regulator of MVB sorting, may serve as a determinant of lysosomal targeting or extracellular secretion of ?SYN and thereby contribute to the intercellular propagation of Lewy pathology in PD. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
"Cerebrospinal fluid"
Focus vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Adj. k-factor
279.8 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ PrP
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biogenesis/Sorting
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
"Cerebrospinal fluid"
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
P40ST
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
279.8
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ PrP
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
PrP
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110038 2/3 Rattus norvegicus/rattus Cell culture supernatant dUC Fitzner D 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Fitzner D, Schnaars M, van Rossum D, Krishnamoorthy G, Dibaj P, Bakhti M, Regen T, Hanisch UK, Simons M
Journal
J Cell Sci
Abstract
The transfer of antigens from oligodendrocytes to immune cells has been implicated in the pathogenes (show more...)The transfer of antigens from oligodendrocytes to immune cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here, we show that oligodendrocytes secrete small membrane vesicles called exosomes, which are specifically and efficiently taken up by microglia both in vitro and in vivo. Internalisation of exosomes occurs by a macropinocytotic mechanism without inducing a concomitant inflammatory response. After stimulation of microglia with interferon-?, we observe an upregulation of MHC class II in a subpopulation of microglia. However, exosomes are preferentially internalised in microglia that do not seem to have antigen-presenting capacity. We propose that the constitutive macropinocytotic clearance of exosomes by a subset of microglia represents an important mechanism through which microglia participate in the degradation of oligodendroglial membrane in an immunologically 'silent' manner. By designating the capacity for macropinocytosis and antigen presentation to distinct cells, degradation and immune function might be assigned to different subtypes of microglia. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ Flotillin2/ MOG
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biogenesis/Sorting
Sample
Species
Rattus norvegicus/rattus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ Flotillin2/ MOG
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin2/ MOG
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
immune EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110015 1/1 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant dUC Chen X 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Chen X, Song CH, Feng BS, Li TL, Li P, Zheng PY, Chen XM, Xing Z, Yang PC
Journal
J Leukoc Biol
Abstract
Toleroge nic DCs and Tregs are believed to play a critical role in oral tolerance. However, the mech (show more...)Toleroge nic DCs and Tregs are believed to play a critical role in oral tolerance. However, the mechanisms of the generation of tolerogenic DCs and activation of Tregs in the gut remain poorly understood. This study aims to dissect the molecular mechanisms by which IECs and protein antigen induce functional tolerogenic DCs and Tregs. Expression of ?v?6 by gut epithelial cell-derived exosomes, its coupling with food antigen, and their relationship with the development of functional tolerogenic DCs and Tregs were examined by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. The results show that IECs up-regulated the integrin ?v?6 upon uptake of antigens. The epithelial cell-derived exosomes entrapped and transported ?v?6 and antigens to the extracellular environment. The uptake of antigens alone induced DCs to produce LTGF?, whereas exosomes carrying ?v?6/antigen resulted in the production of abundant, active TGF-? in DCs that conferred to DCs the tolerogenic properties. Furthermore, ?v?6/OVA-carrying, exosome-primed DCs were found to promote the production of active TGF-? in Tregs. Thus, in vivo administration of ?v?6/OVA-laden exosomes induced the generation of Tregs and suppressed skewed Th2 responses toward food antigen in the intestine. Our study provides important molecular insights into the molecular mechanisms of Treg development by demonstrating an important role of IEC-derived exosomes carrying ?v?6 and food antigen in the induction of tolerogenic DCs and antigen-specific Tregs. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: Integrin-alpha5beta6/ OVA
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Integrin-alpha5beta6/ OVA
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Integrin-alpha5beta6/ OVA
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
immune EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV110026 1/4 Homo sapiens Blood plasma dUC Berckmans RJ 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Berckmans RJ, Sturk A, van Tienen LM, Schaap MC, Nieuwland R
Journal
Blood
Abstract
On vascular damage, coagulation is initiated by extravascular tissue factor (TF). Intravascular TF, (show more...)On vascular damage, coagulation is initiated by extravascular tissue factor (TF). Intravascular TF, which is present on circulating cell-derived vesicles, is noncoagulant under physiologic conditions but prothrombotic under pathologic conditions. Human saliva triggers coagulation, but the mechanism and physiologic relevance are unknown. Because saliva is known to contain TF, we hypothesized that this TF may also be associated with cell-derived vesicles to facilitate coagulation when saliva directly contacts blood. The saliva-induced shortening of the clotting time of autologous plasma and whole blood from healthy subjects (n = 10) proved TF-dependent. This TF was associated with various types of cell-derived vesicles, including microparticles and exosomes. The physiologic function was shown by adding saliva to human pericardial wound blood collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Addition of saliva shortened the clotting time from 300 ± 96 to 186 ± 24 seconds (P = .03). Our results show that saliva triggers coagulation, thereby reducing blood loss and the risk of pathogens entering the blood. We postulate that our reflex to lick a wound may be a mechanism to enable TF-exposing vesicles, present in saliva, to aid in the coagulation process and thus protect the organism from entering pathogens. This unique compartmentalization may be highly conserved because also animals lick their wounds. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (64th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Focus vesicles
Vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
472.2 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: TF
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
30
Pelleting: rotor type
TLA55
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
472.2
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
TF
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
TF
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110026 3/4 Homo sapiens Blood plasma dUC Berckmans RJ 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Berckmans RJ, Sturk A, van Tienen LM, Schaap MC, Nieuwland R
Journal
Blood
Abstract
On vascular damage, coagulation is initiated by extravascular tissue factor (TF). Intravascular TF, (show more...)On vascular damage, coagulation is initiated by extravascular tissue factor (TF). Intravascular TF, which is present on circulating cell-derived vesicles, is noncoagulant under physiologic conditions but prothrombotic under pathologic conditions. Human saliva triggers coagulation, but the mechanism and physiologic relevance are unknown. Because saliva is known to contain TF, we hypothesized that this TF may also be associated with cell-derived vesicles to facilitate coagulation when saliva directly contacts blood. The saliva-induced shortening of the clotting time of autologous plasma and whole blood from healthy subjects (n = 10) proved TF-dependent. This TF was associated with various types of cell-derived vesicles, including microparticles and exosomes. The physiologic function was shown by adding saliva to human pericardial wound blood collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Addition of saliva shortened the clotting time from 300 ± 96 to 186 ± 24 seconds (P = .03). Our results show that saliva triggers coagulation, thereby reducing blood loss and the risk of pathogens entering the blood. We postulate that our reflex to lick a wound may be a mechanism to enable TF-exposing vesicles, present in saliva, to aid in the coagulation process and thus protect the organism from entering pathogens. This unique compartmentalization may be highly conserved because also animals lick their wounds. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (64th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Focus vesicles
Vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
57.93 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: TF
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
TLA55
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
57.93
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
TF
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
TF
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110012 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Alvarez-Erviti L 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Alvarez-Erviti L, Seow Y, Schapira AH, Gardiner C, Sargent IL, Wood MJ, Cooper JM
Journal
Neurobiol Dis
Abstract
Alpha-synuclein aggregation plays a central role in Parkinson's disease pathology. Direct transmissi (show more...)Alpha-synuclein aggregation plays a central role in Parkinson's disease pathology. Direct transmission of alpha-synuclein from pathologically affected to healthy unaffected neurons may be important in the anatomical spread of the disease through the nervous system. We have demonstrated that exosomes released from alpha-synuclein over-expressing SH-SY5Y cells contained alpha-synuclein and these exosomes were capable of efficiently transferring alpha-synuclein protein to normal SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, the incubation of cells with ammonium chloride or bafilomycin A1 to produce the lysosomal dysfunction recently reported in Parkinson's disease led to an increase in the release of alpha-synuclein in exosomes and a concomitant increase in alpha-synuclein transmission to recipient cells. This study clearly demonstrates the importance of exosomes in both the release of alpha synuclein and its transmission between cells and suggests that factors associated with PD pathology accelerate this process. These mechanisms may play an important role in PD pathology and provide a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ Flotilin1/ LAMP1
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ Flotilin1/ LAMP1
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110031 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Alonso R 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Alonso R, Mazzeo C, Rodriguez MC, Marsh M, Fraile-Ramos A, Calvo V, Avila-Flores A, Merida I, Izquierdo M
Journal
Cell Death Differ
Abstract
Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are endocytic compartments that contain intraluminal vesicles formed by (show more...)Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are endocytic compartments that contain intraluminal vesicles formed by inward budding from the limiting membrane of endosomes. In T lymphocytes, these vesicles contain pro-apoptotic Fas ligand (FasL), which may be secreted as 'lethal exosomes' upon fusion of MVBs with the plasma membrane. Diacylglycerol kinase ? (DGK?) regulate the secretion of exosomes, but it is unclear how this control is mediated. T-lymphocyte activation increases the number of MVBs that contain FasL. DGK? is recruited to MVBs and to exosomes in which it has a double function. DGK? kinase activity exerts a negative role in the formation of mature MVBs, as we demonstrate by the use of an inhibitor. Downmodulation of DGK? protein resulted in inhibition of both the polarisation of MVBs towards immune synapse and exosome secretion. The subcellular location of DGK? together with its complex role in the formation and polarised traffic of MVBs support the notion that DGK? is a key regulator of the polarised secretion of exosomes. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ LAMP1
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biogenesis/Sorting
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
720
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ LAMP1
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110030 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
UF
Adamczyk KA 2011 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Adamczyk KA, Klein-Scory S, Tehrani MM, Warnken U, Schmiegel W, Schnölzer M, Schwarte-Waldhoff I
Journal
Life Sci
Abstract
AIMS: Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family represent validated targets for (show more...)AIMS: Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family represent validated targets for anti-cancer therapy and EGFR inhibitors have also shown efficacy in pancreatic carcinoma. We here described in detail molecular forms of the EGF receptor released by pancreatic cancer cells. We found peptides specific for the EGFR in the secretomes of five pancreatic cancer cell lines. Secretomes from cultured cancer cells are widely used as sources for serum biomarker discovery. MAIN METHODS: The detailed analysis of EGFR forms in secretomes of human pancreatic cancer cells is a compilation of results from mass spectrometry (MS) and Western blotting with intracellular and extracellular domain specific antibodies. KEY FINDINGS: Pancreatic cancer cells secrete a 110 kDa soluble form of the EGFR (sEGFR) representing the ligand binding extracellular EGFR domains and presumably released by ectodomain shedding. At the same time, as constituents of exosomes, the EGFR is released as full-length intact receptor (170 kDa) and as a 65 kDa processed form, the C-terminal remnant fragment that corresponds to the intracellular kinase domain. SIGNIFICANCE: The detailed characterization of diverse EGFR forms released by pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and presumably in vivo bears important implications for functional studies, for the validation of soluble EGFR as a serum biomarker and for the design of targeted therapies. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + UF
Adj. k-factor
105 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD63/ CD9/ Syntenin
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
T890
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
105.0
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD63/ CD9/ Syntenin
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110075 1/1 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Fungus dUC
UF
Vallejo MC 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Vallejo MC, Matsuo AL, Ganiko L, Medeiros LC, Miranda K, Silva LS, Freymüller-Haapalainen E, Sinigaglia-Coimbra R, Almeida IC, Puccia R
Journal
Eukaryot Cell
Abstract
Exosome-like vesicles containing virulence factors, enzymes, and antigens have recently been charact (show more...)Exosome-like vesicles containing virulence factors, enzymes, and antigens have recently been characterized in fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Here, we describe extracellular vesicles carrying highly immunogenic ?-linked galactopyranosyl (?-Gal) epitopes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. P. brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). For vesicle preparations, cell-free supernatant fluids from yeast cells cultivated in Ham's defined medium-glucose were concentrated in an Amicon ultrafiltration system and ultracentrifuged at 100,000 × g. P. brasiliensis antigens were present in preparations from phylogenetically distinct isolates Pb18 and Pb3, as observed in immunoblots revealed with sera from PCM patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), vesicle components containing ?-Gal epitopes reacted strongly with anti-?-Gal antibodies isolated from both Chagas' disease and PCM patients, with Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) (a lectin that recognizes terminal ?-Gal), but only faintly with natural anti-?-Gal. Reactivity was inhibited after treatment with ?-galactosidase. Vesicle preparations analyzed by electron microscopy showed vesicular structures of 20 to 200 nm that were labeled both on the surface and in the lumen with MOA. In P. brasiliensis cells, components carrying ?-Gal epitopes were found distributed on the cell wall, following a punctuated confocal pattern, and inside large intracellular vacuoles. Lipid-free vesicle fractions reacted with anti-?-Gal in ELISA only when not digested with ?-galactosidase, while reactivity with glycoproteins was reduced after ?-elimination, which is indicative of partial O-linked chain localization. Our findings open new areas to explore in terms of host-parasite relationships in PCM and the role played in vivo by vesicle components and ?-galactosyl epitopes. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (64th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Fungus
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + UF
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Other/Immunogenic peptides on fungal Evs
Sample
Species
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Sample Type
Fungus
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV110071 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Yang M 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Yang M, Chen J, Su F, Yu B, Su F, Lin L, Liu Y, Huang JD, Song E
Journal
Mol Cancer
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are alternatively activated cells induced by interle (show more...)BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are alternatively activated cells induced by interleukin-4 (IL-4)-releasing CD4+ T cells. TAMs promote breast cancer invasion and metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying these interactions between macrophages and tumor cells that lead to cancer metastasis remain elusive. Previous studies have found microRNAs (miRNAs) circulating in the peripheral blood and have identified microvesicles, or exosomes, as mediators of cell-cell communication. Therefore, one alternative mechanism for the promotion of breast cancer cell invasion by TAMs may be through macrophage-secreted exosomes, which would deliver invasion-potentiating miRNAs to breast cancer cells. RESULTS: We utilized a co-culture system with IL-4-activated macrophages and breast cancer cells to verify that miRNAs are transported from macrophages to breast cancer cells. The shuttling of fluorescently-labeled exogenous miRNAs from IL-4-activated macrophages to co-cultivated breast cancer cells without direct cell-cell contact was observed. miR-223, a miRNA specific for IL-4-activated macrophages, was detected within the exosomes released by macrophages and was significantly elevated in the co-cultivated SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The invasiveness of the co-cultivated breast cancer cells decreased when the IL-4-activated macrophages were treated with a miR-223 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that would inhibit miR-223 expression. Furthermore, results from a functional assay revealed that miR-223 promoted the invasion of breast cancer cells via the Mef2c-?-catenin pathway. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that macrophages regulate the invasiveness of breast cancer cells through exosome-mediated delivery of oncogenic miRNAs. Our data provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the metastasis-promoting interactions between macrophages and breast cancer cells. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (44th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
microvesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
180
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV110063 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
SEC
UF
Sokolova V 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Sokolova V, Ludwig AK, Hornung S, Rotan O, Horn PA, Epple M, Giebel B
Journal
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
Abstract
Exosomes from three different cell types (HEK 293T, ECFC, MSC) were characterised by scanning electr (show more...)Exosomes from three different cell types (HEK 293T, ECFC, MSC) were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The diameter was around 110 nm for the three cell types. The stability of exosomes was examined during storage at -20°C, 4°C, and 37°C. The size of the exosomes decreased at 4°C and 37°C, indicating a structural change or degradation. Multiple freezing to -20°C and thawing did not affect the exosome size. Multiple ultracentrifugation also did not change the exosome size. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (44th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + SEC + UF
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Particle analysis
DLS
NTA
EM
EM-type
scanning EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110062 1/1 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant dUC
Sucrose-DG
Singh PP 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Singh PP, LeMaire C, Tan JC, Zeng E, Schorey JS
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are known to be refractory t (show more...)BACKGROUND: Macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are known to be refractory to IFN-? stimulation. Previous studies have shown that M.tb express components such as the 19-kDa lipoprotein and peptidoglycan that can bind to macrophage receptors including the Toll-like receptor 2 resulting in the loss in IFN-? responsiveness. However, it is unclear whether this effect is limited to infected macrophages. We have previously shown that M.tb-infected macrophages release exosomes which are 30-100 nm membrane bound vesicles of endosomal origin that function in intercellular communication. These exosomes contain mycobacterial components including the 19-kDa lipoprotein and therefore we hypothesized that macrophages exposed to exosomes may show limited response to IFN-? stimulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exosomes were isolated from resting as well as M.tb-infected RAW264.7 macrophages. Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMØ) were treated with exosomes +/- IFN-?. Cells were harvested and analyzed for suppression of IFN-? responsive genes by flow cytometry and real time PCR. We found that exosomes derived from M.tb H37Rv-infected but not from uninfected macrophages inhibited IFN-? induced MHC class II and CD64 expression on BMMØ. This inhibition was only partially dependent on the presence of lipoproteins but completely dependent on TLR2 and MyD88. The exosomes isolated from infected cells did not inhibit STAT1 Tyrosine phosphorylation but down-regulated IFN-? induced expression of the class II major histocompatibility complex transactivator; a key regulator of class II MHC expression. Microarray studies showed that subsets of genes induced by IFN-? were inhibited by exosomes from H37Rv-infected cells including genes involved in antigen presentation. Moreover, this set of genes partially overlapped with the IFN-?-induced genes inhibited by H37Rv infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that exosomes, as carriers of M.tb pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), may provide a mechanism by which M.tb may exert its suppression of a host immune response beyond the infected cell. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (44th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Sucrose-DG
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Density gradient
Lowest density fraction
0.25
Highest density fraction
2
Orientation
Bottom-up
Speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110104 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Mor-Vaknin N 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Mor-Vaknin N, Kappes F, Dick AE, Legendre M, Damoc C, Teitz-Tennenbaum S, Kwok R, Ferrando-May E, Adams BS, Markovitz DM
Journal
Arthritis Rheum
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: DEK is a nuclear phosphoprotein and autoantigen in a subset of children with juvenile idi (show more...)OBJECTIVE: DEK is a nuclear phosphoprotein and autoantigen in a subset of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Autoantibodies to DEK are also found in a broad spectrum of disorders associated with abnormal immune activation. We previously demonstrated that DEK is secreted by macrophages, is released by apoptotic T cells, and attracts leukocytes. Since DEK has been identified in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with JIA, this study was undertaken to investigate how DEK protein and/or autoantibodies may contribute to the pathogenesis of JIA. METHODS: DEK autoantibodies, immune complexes (ICs), and synovial macrophages were purified from the SF of patients with JIA. DEK autoantibodies and ICs were purified by affinity-column chromatography and analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DEK in supernatants and exosomes was purified by serial centrifugation and immunoprecipitation with magnetic beads, and posttranslational modifications of DEK were identified by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS). RESULTS: DEK autoantibodies and protein were found in the SF of patients with JIA. Secretion of DEK by synovial macrophages was observed both in a free form and via exosomes. DEK autoantibodies (IgG2) may activate the complement cascade, primarily recognize the C-terminal portion of DEK protein, and exhibit higher affinity for acetylated DEK. Consistent with these observations, DEK underwent acetylation on an unprecedented number of lysine residues, as demonstrated by nano-LC-MS/MS. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that DEK can contribute directly to joint inflammation in JIA by generating ICs through high-affinity interaction between DEK and DEK autoantibodies, a process enhanced by acetylation of DEK in the inflamed joint. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (44th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Adj. k-factor
173.3 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Other/Role of DEK in joint inflammation
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
TY65
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
173.3
Immunoaffinity capture
Selected surface protein(s)
CD81
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110101 1/1 Homo sapiens Urine dUC Li Y 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Li Y, Zhang Y, Qiu F, Qiu Z
Journal
Electrophoresis
Abstract
In the present research, we aimed to screen for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-related proteins (show more...)In the present research, we aimed to screen for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-related proteins in urinary exosomes by comparing urinary exosomes proteome of normal controls and NSCLC patients. Urinary exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation and identified by electron microscopy. Exosomal proteins were separated by 1-D SDS-PAGE and the differentially expressed bands between healthy controls and NSCLC patients ranging in size from 35 to 45 kD were cut from the gel. After tryptic digestion, 18 proteins were identified by nano-HPLC-chip-MS/MS. The differential expression of leucine-rich ?-2-glycoprotein (LRG1) was further validated in urinary exosomes by Western blot and in lung tissue by immunohistochemistry. The LRG1 was found to be expressed at higher levels in urinary exosomes and lung tissue of NSCLC patients. These results suggested that LRG1 may be a candidate biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis of NSCLC in urine. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (44th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Protein analysis
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110047 1/1 Escherichia coli Bacteria 0.2 µm filter
0.45 µm
dUC
Sucrose-DG
Lee DH 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Lee DH, Kim SH, Kang W, Choi YS, Lee SH, Lee SR, You S, Lee HK, Chang KT, Shin EC
Journal
Vaccine
Abstract
Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are nano-sized spherical blebs shed by Gram-negative bacteria and have (show more...)Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are nano-sized spherical blebs shed by Gram-negative bacteria and have been utilized in vaccine development. In the present study, we evaluated T cell adjuvant activity of OMV with strictly penta-acylated LPS produced by ?msbB/?pagP mutant of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli W3110 (mOMV) compared to OMV with hexa-acylated LPS produced by wild-type E. coli W3110 (wOMV). Penta-acylation of LPS renders mOMV less endotoxic than wOMV in in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. In mice, mOMV has adjuvant activity on T cell priming not only in KLH protein immunization but also in SIINFEKL peptide immunization. The T-cell adjuvant activity of mOMV was comparable to that of wOMV and LPS and was abrogated in TLR4 K/O mice. In innate immunity, mOMV stimulated BMDCs to up-regulate co-stimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules and to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines in a TLR4-dependent manner. Of note, mOMV induced cytokine production at a significantly less extent compared with wOMV. Taken together, we propose that mOMV with penta-acylated LPS is a safe vaccine adjuvant for T cell priming and can be used in vaccine development against viral diseases and cancer. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (56th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Bacteria
Focus vesicles
OMV
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + 0.45 µm + dUC + Sucrose-DG
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Escherichia coli
Sample Type
Bacteria
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Filtration steps
0.45µm > x > 0.22µm, 0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110029 1/3 Homo sapiens Milk 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Lässer C 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Lässer C, Alikhani VS, Ekström K, Eldh M, Paredes PT, Bossios A, Sjöstrand M, Gabrielsson S, Lötvall J, Valadi H
Journal
J Transl Med
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin produced by numerous cells. (show more...)BACKGROUND: Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin produced by numerous cells. They can mediate diverse biological functions, including antigen presentation. Exosomes have recently been shown to contain functional RNA, which can be delivered to other cells. Exosomes may thus mediate biological functions either by surface-to-surface interactions with cells, or by the delivery of functional RNA to cells. Our aim was therefore to determine the presence of RNA in exosomes from human saliva, plasma and breast milk and whether these exosomes can be taken up by macrophages. METHOD: Exosomes were purified from human saliva, plasma and breast milk using ultracentrifugation and filtration steps. Exosomes were detected by electron microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was performed by capturing the exosomes on anti-MHC class II coated beads, and further stain with anti-CD9, anti-CD63 or anti-CD81. Breast milk exosomes were further analysed for the presence of Hsc70, CD81 and calnexin by Western blot. Total RNA was detected with a Bioanalyzer and mRNA was identified by the synthesis of cDNA using an oligo (dT) primer and analysed with a Bioanalyzer. The uptake of PKH67-labelled saliva and breast milk exosomes by macrophages was examined by measuring fluorescence using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: RNA was detected in exosomes from all three body fluids. A portion of the detected RNA in plasma exosomes was characterised as mRNA. Our result extends the characterisation of exosomes in healthy humans and confirms the presence of RNA in human saliva and plasma exosomes and reports for the first time the presence of RNA in breast milk exosomes. Our results also show that the saliva and breast milk exosomes can be taken up by human macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Exosomes in saliva, plasma and breast milk all contain RNA, confirming previous findings that exosomes from several sources contain RNA. Furthermore, exosomes are readily taken up by macrophages, supporting the notion that exosomal RNA can be shuttled between cells. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (33rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Milk
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ Hsc70
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biogenesis/Sorting
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Milk
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Immunoaffinity capture
Selected surface protein(s)
MHC2
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Hsc70
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Hsc70
Flow cytometry specific beads
Selected surface protein(s)
Yes
Characterization: Particle analysis
Particle analysis: flow cytometry
EM
EM-type
immune EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110029 3/3 Homo sapiens Blood plasma 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Lässer C 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Lässer C, Alikhani VS, Ekström K, Eldh M, Paredes PT, Bossios A, Sjöstrand M, Gabrielsson S, Lötvall J, Valadi H
Journal
J Transl Med
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin produced by numerous cells. (show more...)BACKGROUND: Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin produced by numerous cells. They can mediate diverse biological functions, including antigen presentation. Exosomes have recently been shown to contain functional RNA, which can be delivered to other cells. Exosomes may thus mediate biological functions either by surface-to-surface interactions with cells, or by the delivery of functional RNA to cells. Our aim was therefore to determine the presence of RNA in exosomes from human saliva, plasma and breast milk and whether these exosomes can be taken up by macrophages. METHOD: Exosomes were purified from human saliva, plasma and breast milk using ultracentrifugation and filtration steps. Exosomes were detected by electron microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was performed by capturing the exosomes on anti-MHC class II coated beads, and further stain with anti-CD9, anti-CD63 or anti-CD81. Breast milk exosomes were further analysed for the presence of Hsc70, CD81 and calnexin by Western blot. Total RNA was detected with a Bioanalyzer and mRNA was identified by the synthesis of cDNA using an oligo (dT) primer and analysed with a Bioanalyzer. The uptake of PKH67-labelled saliva and breast milk exosomes by macrophages was examined by measuring fluorescence using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: RNA was detected in exosomes from all three body fluids. A portion of the detected RNA in plasma exosomes was characterised as mRNA. Our result extends the characterisation of exosomes in healthy humans and confirms the presence of RNA in human saliva and plasma exosomes and reports for the first time the presence of RNA in breast milk exosomes. Our results also show that the saliva and breast milk exosomes can be taken up by human macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Exosomes in saliva, plasma and breast milk all contain RNA, confirming previous findings that exosomes from several sources contain RNA. Furthermore, exosomes are readily taken up by macrophages, supporting the notion that exosomal RNA can be shuttled between cells. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (46th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81/ CD9
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biogenesis/Sorting
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Immunoaffinity capture
Selected surface protein(s)
MHC2
Flow cytometry specific beads
Selected surface protein(s)
Yes
Characterization: Particle analysis
Particle analysis: flow cytometry
EM
EM-type
immune EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110041 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Grange C 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Grange C, Tapparo M, Collino F, Vitillo L, Damasco C, Deregibus MC, Tetta C, Bussolati B, Camussi G
Journal
Cancer Res
Abstract
Recent studies suggest that tumor-derived microvesicles (MV) act as a vehicle for exchange of geneti (show more...)Recent studies suggest that tumor-derived microvesicles (MV) act as a vehicle for exchange of genetic information between tumor and stromal cells, engendering a favorable microenvironment for cancer development. Within the tumor mass, all cell types may contribute to MV shedding, but specific contributions to tumor progression have yet to be established. Here we report that a subset of tumor-initiating cells expressing the mesenchymal stem cell marker CD105 in human renal cell carcinoma releases MVs that trigger angiogenesis and promote the formation of a premetastatic niche. MVs derived only from CD105-positive cancer stem cells conferred an activated angiogenic phenotype to normal human endothelial cells, stimulating their growth and vessel formation after in vivo implantation in immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Furthermore, treating SCID mice with MVs shed from CD105-positive cells greatly enhanced lung metastases induced by i.v. injection of renal carcinoma cells. Molecular characterization of CD105-positive MVs defines a set of proangiogenic mRNAs and microRNAs implicated in tumor progression and metastases. Our results define a specific source of cancer stem cell-derived MVs that contribute to triggering the angiogenic switch and coordinating metastatic diffusion during tumor progression. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (44th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
microvesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Particle analysis
DLS
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110093 1/1 Mus musculus Serum dUC Gatson NN 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Gatson NN, Williams JL, Powell ND, McClain MA, Hennon TR, Robbins PD, Whitacre CC
Journal
J Neuroimmunol
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the CNS involving T cell targeting of myelin a (show more...)Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the CNS involving T cell targeting of myelin antigens. During pregnancy, women with MS experience decreased relapses followed by a post partum disease flare. Using murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we recapitulate pregnancy findings in both relapsing and progressive models. Pregnant mice produced less TNF-?, IL-17 and exhibited reduced CNS pathology relative to non-pregnant controls. Microparticles, called exosomes, shed into the blood during pregnancy were isolated and found to significantly suppress T cell activation relative to those from non-pregnant controls. These results demonstrate the immunosuppressive potential of pregnancy and serum-derived pregnancy exosomes. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (66th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Serum
Focus vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
119.5 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Serum
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
SW55
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
119.5
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110035 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
Sucrose-DG
Cho JA 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Cho JA, Park H, Lim EH, Kim KH, Choi JS, Lee JH, Shin JW, Lee KW
Journal
Gynecol Oncol
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Most tumor tissue is composed of parenchymal tumor cells and tumor stroma. Mesenchymal st (show more...)OBJECTIVE: Most tumor tissue is composed of parenchymal tumor cells and tumor stroma. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can function as precursors for tumor stromal cells, including myofibroblasts, which provide a favorable environment for tumor progression. A close relationship between tumor cells and MSCs in a tumor microenvironment has been described. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are enriched with a discrete set of cellular proteins, and are therefore expected to exert diverse biological functions according to cell origin. METHODS: In the current study, we determined the biological effect of exosomes from two ovarian cancer cell lines (SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3) on adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADSCs). RESULTS: Exosome treatment induced ADSCs to exhibit the typical characteristics of tumor-associated myofibroblasts, with increased expression of ?-SMA, and also increased expression of tumor-promoting factors (SDF-1 and TGF-?). This phenomenon was correlated with an increased expression of TGF-? receptors I and II. Analysis of TGF-? receptor-mediated downstream signaling pathways revealed that each exosome activated different signaling pathways, showing that exosomes from SK-OV-3 cells increased the phosphorylated form of SMAD2, which is essential in the SMAD-dependent pathway, whereas exosomes from OVCAR-3 cells increased the phosphorylated form of AKT, a representative SMAD-independent pathway. Taken together, exosomes from ovarian cancer cells induced the myofibroblastic phenotype and functionality in ADSCs by activating an intracellular signaling pathway, although the activated pathway could differ from exosome-to-exosome. CONCLUSION: The current study suggested that ovarian cancer-derived exosomes contribute to the generation of tumor-associated myofibroblasts from MSCs in tumor stroma. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (44th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Sucrose-DG
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Density gradient
Rotor type
SW41
Speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110080 1/3 Homo sapiens Serum 0.2 µm filter
dUC
UF
Battke C 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Battke C, Ruiss R, Welsch U, Wimberger P, Lang S, Jochum S, Zeidler R
Journal
Cancer Immunol Immunother
Abstract
In order to grow within an immunocompetent host, tumour cells have evolved various strategies to cop (show more...)In order to grow within an immunocompetent host, tumour cells have evolved various strategies to cope with the host's immune system. These strategies include the downregulation of surface molecules and the secretion of immunosuppressive factors like IL-10 and PGE2 that impair the maturation of immune effector cells, among other mechanisms. Recently, tumour exosomes (TEX) have also been implicated in tumour-induced immune suppression as it has been shown that TEX can induce apoptosis in T lymphocytes. In this study, we extend our knowledge about immunosuppressive features of these microvesicles in that we show that TEX efficiently bind and sequester tumour-reactive antibodies and dramatically reduce their binding to tumour cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that this antibody sequestration reduces the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by immune effector cells, which is among the most important anti-tumour reactions of the immune system and a significant activity of therapeutic antibodies. Taken together, these data point to the fact that tumour-derived exosomes interfere with the tumour-specific function of immune cells and constitute an additional mechanism how tumours escape from immune surveillance. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (66th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Serum
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + UF
Adj. k-factor
25.32 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: HER2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Serum
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Pelleting: rotor type
TL100
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
25.32
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
HER2
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
HER2
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110080 2/3 Homo sapiens Ascites 0.2 µm filter
dUC
UF
Battke C 2011 14%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Battke C, Ruiss R, Welsch U, Wimberger P, Lang S, Jochum S, Zeidler R
Journal
Cancer Immunol Immunother
Abstract
In order to grow within an immunocompetent host, tumour cells have evolved various strategies to cop (show more...)In order to grow within an immunocompetent host, tumour cells have evolved various strategies to cope with the host's immune system. These strategies include the downregulation of surface molecules and the secretion of immunosuppressive factors like IL-10 and PGE2 that impair the maturation of immune effector cells, among other mechanisms. Recently, tumour exosomes (TEX) have also been implicated in tumour-induced immune suppression as it has been shown that TEX can induce apoptosis in T lymphocytes. In this study, we extend our knowledge about immunosuppressive features of these microvesicles in that we show that TEX efficiently bind and sequester tumour-reactive antibodies and dramatically reduce their binding to tumour cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that this antibody sequestration reduces the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by immune effector cells, which is among the most important anti-tumour reactions of the immune system and a significant activity of therapeutic antibodies. Taken together, these data point to the fact that tumour-derived exosomes interfere with the tumour-specific function of immune cells and constitute an additional mechanism how tumours escape from immune surveillance. (hide)
EV-METRIC
14% (63rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Ascites
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + UF
Adj. k-factor
25.32 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Ascites
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Pelleting: rotor type
TL100
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
25.32
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110120 1/1 Rattus norvegicus/rattus Cell culture supernatant dUC Yang X 2011 13%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Yang X, Meng S, Jiang H, Zhu C, Wu W
Journal
J Surg Res
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) secrete exosomes bearing major histocompatibility complex I and II (show more...)BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) secrete exosomes bearing major histocompatibility complex I and II (MHC I /II) and co-stimulatory molecules, and play a critical role in immune regulation. Because immature DCs can induce T-cell tolerance in vitro and in vivo, we explored the possibility of using exosomes derived from immature DCs (imDex) for the induction of intestinal transplant tolerance in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ImDex were purified from F344 rat bone marrow immature DCs. The tolerizing capacities of imDex were analyzed in vitro and in vivo using a F344-to-Wistar intestinal transplantation model. RESULTS: In the context of a moderate level of MHC class II and a low co-stimulatory level expression, imDex significantly suppressed the alloreactive T-cell response with an increase in IL-10 in vitro. In vivo injection of the lower dose (20 ?g) of donor (but not recipient) imDex can significantly prolong the survival of intestinal allografts. This effect was accompanied by a decrease in the anti-donor cellular response, with a significant increase in IL-10. The CD4+CD25+T cells percentage and FOXP3mRNA expression in splenic T-cells were also significantly increased in imDex treatment recipients at five days after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that imDex can prolong the intestinal allograft survival and may be a potential strategy to facilitate induction of transplant tolerance. (hide)
EV-METRIC
13% (37th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: MHC2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Rattus norvegicus/rattus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
MHC2
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
MHC2
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110068 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
0.8 µm
Density cushion
UF
Viaud S 2011 13%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Viaud S, Ploix S, Lapierre V, Théry C, Commere PH, Tramalloni D, Gorrichon K, Virault-Rocroy P, Tursz T, Lantz O, Zitvogel L, Chaput N
Journal
J Immunother
Abstract
Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) are nanovesicles bearing major histocompatibility complexes pr (show more...)Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) are nanovesicles bearing major histocompatibility complexes promoting T-cell-dependent antitumor effects in mice. Two phase I clinical trials aimed at vaccinating cancer patients with peptide-pulsed Dex have shown the feasibility and safety of inoculating clinical-grade Dex, but have failed to show their immunizing capacity. These low immunogenic capacities have led us to develop second-generation Dex with enhanced immunostimulatory properties. Here, we show that interferon-? is a key cytokine conditioning the dendritic cell to induce the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and CD54 on Dex, endowing them with direct and potent peptide-dependent CD8(+) T-cell-triggering potential in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we describe the clinical grade process to manufacture large-scale interferon-?-Dex vaccines and their quality control parameters currently used in a phase II trial. (hide)
EV-METRIC
13% (37th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + 0.8 µm + Density cushion + UF
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ MHC2/ HSC70
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Filtration steps
> 0.45 µm, 0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
TSG101/ MHC2/ HSC70
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
MHC2/ HSC70
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110020 1/3 Homo sapiens Pleural effusion Density cushion Rupp AK 2011 13%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Rupp AK, Rupp C, Keller S, Brase JC, Ehehalt R, Fogel M, Moldenhauer G, Marmé F, Sültmann H, Altevogt P
Journal
Gynecol Oncol
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Cancer cells in the body release soluble and membranous factors that manipulate the tumor (show more...)OBJECTIVE: Cancer cells in the body release soluble and membranous factors that manipulate the tumor environment to facilitate growth and survival. Recent years have provided evidence that small microvesicles that are termed exosomes may play a pivotal role in this process. Exosomes are membrane vesicles with a size of 40-100 nm that are released by both tumor and normal cells and can be found in various body fluids. Tumor-derived exosomes carry functional proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs and could serve as novel platform for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. However, marker proteins that allow enrichment of tumor-derived exosomes over normal exosomes are less well defined. METHODS: We used Western blot analysis and antibody coupled magnetic beads to characterize CD24 and EpCAM as markers for exosomes. We investigated ovarian carcinoma ascites, pleural effusions and serum of breast carcinoma patients. As non-tumor derived control we used exosomes from ascites of liver cirrhosis patients. RESULTS: Exosomes could be isolated from all body fluids and contained marker proteins as well as miRNAs. We observed that CD24 and EpCAM were selectively present on ascites exosomes of tumor patients and copurified together on anti-EpCAM or anti-CD24 magnetic beads. In breast cancer patients CD24 was present but EpCAM was absent from serum exosomes. Instead, the intact EpCAM ectodomain was recovered in a soluble form. We provide evidence that EpCAM can be cleaved from exosomes via serum metalloproteinase(s). CONCLUSION: Loss of EpCAM on serum exosomes may hamper enrichment by immune-affinity isolation. We suggest that CD24 could be an additional marker for the enrichment of tumor-derived exosomes from blood. (hide)
EV-METRIC
13% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Pleural effusion
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density cushion
Protein markers
EV: CD9/ HSP70/ ADAM10/ Annexin1/ MHC2/ EpCAM/ CD24
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Pleural effusion
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ HSP70/ ADAM10/ Annexin1/ MHC2/ EpCAM/ CD24
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
ADAM10/ Annexin1/ MHC2/ EpCAM/ CD24
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110033 2/2 Homo sapiens Milk 0.2 µm filter
0.45 µm
Density cushion
Batista BS 2011 13%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Batista BS, Eng WS, Pilobello KT, Hendricks-Muñoz KD, Mahal LK
Journal
J Proteome Res
Abstract
Microvesicles (exosomes) are important mediators of intercellular communication, playing a role in i (show more...)Microvesicles (exosomes) are important mediators of intercellular communication, playing a role in immune regulation, cancer progression, and the spread of infectious agents. The biological functions of these small vesicles are dependent on their composition, which is regulated by mechanisms that are not well understood. Although numerous proteomic studies of these particles exist, little is known about their glycosylation. Carbohydrates are involved in protein trafficking and cellular recognition. Glycomic analysis may thus provide valuable insights into microvesicle biology. In this study, we analyzed glycosylation patterns of microvesicles derived from a variety of biological sources using lectin microarray technology. Comparison of the microvesicle glycomes with their parent cell membranes revealed both enrichment and depletion of specific glycan epitopes in these particles. These include enrichment in high mannose, polylactosamine, ?-2,6 sialic acid, and complex N-linked glycans and exclusion of terminal blood group A and B antigens. The polylactosamine signature derives from distinct glycoprotein cohorts in microvesicles of different origins. Taken together, our data point to the emergence of microvesicles from a specific membrane microdomain, implying a role for glycosylation in microvesicle protein sorting. (hide)
EV-METRIC
13% (27th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Milk
Focus vesicles
microvesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + 0.45 µm + Density cushion
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Milk
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Filtration steps
0.45µm > x > 0.22µm, 0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD81
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110073 1/1 Homo sapiens Ascites Density cushion
dUC
Zhong H 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhong H, Yang Y, Ma S, Xiu F, Cai Z, Zhao H, Du L
Journal
Int J Hyperthermia
Abstract
PURPOSE: Tumour cell-derived exosomes may represent a novel type of cancer vaccine. However, the imm (show more...)PURPOSE: Tumour cell-derived exosomes may represent a novel type of cancer vaccine. However, the immunogenicity of exosomes derived from tumour cells has been shown to be poor. Therefore, in this study, exosome immunogenicity following heat treatment of exosomes from malignant ascites obtained from gastric cancer patients was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumour-derived exosomes were isolated from heat-treated and untreated malignant ascites of gastric cancer patients using serial centrifugation and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. Next, in vitro experiments were performed to investigate the influence of heat treatment on exosome immunogenicity. RESULTS: Exosomes from heat-treated malignant ascites of gastric cancer patients (HS exosomes) were found to contain higher concentrations of heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp60, than exosomes derived from untreated malignant ascites obtained from gastric cancer patients. Additional in vitro studies suggest that exosomes derived from heat-treated malignant ascites are able to promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation and induce a tumour-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results demonstrate that exposure to heat stress can improve the immunogenicity of exosomes obtained from malignant ascites of gastric cancer patients. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Ascites
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density cushion + dUC
Protein markers
EV: HSP90/ HSP70/ Actin/ MHC1/ MHC2/ CD80/ Hsp60/ Hsc70/ CEA/ CA19-9
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Ascites
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
30
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
HSP90/ HSP70/ Actin/ MHC1/ MHC2/ CD80/ Hsp60/ Hsc70/ CEA/ CA19-9
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Actin/ MHC1/ MHC2/ CD80/ Hsp60/ Hsc70/ CEA/ CA19-9
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110070 1/1 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
UF
Yang C 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Yang C, Kim SH, Bianco NR, Robbins PD
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Exosomes are endosome-derived small membrane vesicles that are secreted by most cell types including (show more...)Exosomes are endosome-derived small membrane vesicles that are secreted by most cell types including tumor cells. Tumor-derived exosomes usually contain tumor antigens and have been used as a source of tumor antigens to stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. However, many reports also suggest that tumor-derived exosomes can facilitate tumor immune evasion through different mechanisms, most of which are antigen-independent. In the present study we used a mouse model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and demonstrated that local administration of tumor-derived exosomes carrying the model antigen chicken ovalbumin (OVA) resulted in the suppression of DTH response in an antigen-specific manner. Analysis of exosome trafficking demonstrated that following local injection, tumor-derived exosomes were internalized by CD11c+ cells and transported to the draining LN. Exosome-mediated DTH suppression is associated with increased mRNA levels of TGF-?1 and IL-4 in the draining LN. The tumor-derived exosomes examined were also found to inhibit DC maturation. Taken together, our results suggest a role for tumor-derived exosomes in inducing tumor antigen-specific immunosuppression, possibly by modulating the function of APCs. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (29th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + UF
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD81/ HSP90/ TSG101/ HSC70/ Beta-actin/ MHC1/ MHC2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD81/ HSP90/ TSG101/ HSC70/ Beta-actin/ MHC1/ MHC2
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
HSC70/ Beta-actin/ MHC1/ MHC2
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110117 1/2 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant dUC Turiák L 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Turiák L, Misják P, Szabó TG, Aradi B, Pálóczi K, Ozohanics O, Drahos L, Kittel A, Falus A, Buzás EI, Vékey K
Journal
J Proteomics
Abstract
Several studies have characterized exosomes derived from different cell sources. In this work we set (show more...)Several studies have characterized exosomes derived from different cell sources. In this work we set the goal of proteomic characterization of two less studied populations of membrane vesicles, microvesicles (100-800 nm) and apoptotic bodies (> 800 nm) released by thymus cells of BALB/c mice. The vesicles were isolated by the combination of differential centrifugation and gravity driven multistep filtration of the supernatant of thymus cell cultures. The size distribution of vesicle preparations was determined by transmission electron microscopy. Proteins were released from the vesicles, digested in solution, and analyzed using nano-HPLC/MS(MS). Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to identify functions related to membrane vesicle proteins. In apoptotic bodies and microvesicles we have identified 142 and 195 proteins, respectively. A striking overlap was detected between the proteomic compositions of the two subcellular structures as 108 proteins were detected in both preparations. Identified proteins included autoantigens implicated in human autoimmune diseases, key regulators of T-cell activation, molecules involved in known immune functions or in leukocyte rolling and transendothelial transmigration. The presence and abundance of proteins with high immunological relevance within thymocyte-derived apoptotic bodies and microvesicles raise the possibility that these subcellular structures may substantially modulate T-cell maturation processes within the thymus. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (29th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
microvesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: AQP1/ Alpha-tubulin
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
20
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
AQP1/ Alpha-tubulin
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
AQP1/ Alpha-tubulin
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110117 2/2 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant 0.8 µm filter
dUC
Turiák L 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Turiák L, Misják P, Szabó TG, Aradi B, Pálóczi K, Ozohanics O, Drahos L, Kittel A, Falus A, Buzás EI, Vékey K
Journal
J Proteomics
Abstract
Several studies have characterized exosomes derived from different cell sources. In this work we set (show more...)Several studies have characterized exosomes derived from different cell sources. In this work we set the goal of proteomic characterization of two less studied populations of membrane vesicles, microvesicles (100-800 nm) and apoptotic bodies (> 800 nm) released by thymus cells of BALB/c mice. The vesicles were isolated by the combination of differential centrifugation and gravity driven multistep filtration of the supernatant of thymus cell cultures. The size distribution of vesicle preparations was determined by transmission electron microscopy. Proteins were released from the vesicles, digested in solution, and analyzed using nano-HPLC/MS(MS). Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to identify functions related to membrane vesicle proteins. In apoptotic bodies and microvesicles we have identified 142 and 195 proteins, respectively. A striking overlap was detected between the proteomic compositions of the two subcellular structures as 108 proteins were detected in both preparations. Identified proteins included autoantigens implicated in human autoimmune diseases, key regulators of T-cell activation, molecules involved in known immune functions or in leukocyte rolling and transendothelial transmigration. The presence and abundance of proteins with high immunological relevance within thymocyte-derived apoptotic bodies and microvesicles raise the possibility that these subcellular structures may substantially modulate T-cell maturation processes within the thymus. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (29th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
microvesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.8 µm filter + dUC
Protein markers
EV: Galectin1/ Alpha-tubulin
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
40
Filtration steps
> 0.45 µm,
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Galectin1/ Alpha-tubulin
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Galectin1/ Alpha-tubulin
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110079 2/2 Homo sapiens Blood plasma 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Turchinovich A 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Turchinovich A, Weiz L, Langheinz A, Burwinkel B
Journal
Nucleic Acids Res
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of post-transcriptional gene expression regulators, have recently been d (show more...)MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of post-transcriptional gene expression regulators, have recently been detected in human body fluids, including peripheral blood plasma as extracellular nuclease resistant entities. However, the origin and function of extracellular circulating miRNA remain essentially unknown. Here, we confirmed that circulating mature miRNA in contrast to mRNA or snRNA is strikingly stable in blood plasma and cell culture media. Furthermore, we found that most miRNA in plasma and cell culture media completely passed through 0.22 µm filters but remained in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation at 110 000g indicating the non-vesicular origin of the extracellular miRNA. Furthermore, western blot immunoassay revealed that extracellular miRNA ultrafiltrated together with the 96 kDa Ago2 protein, a part of RNA-induced silencing complex. Moreover, miRNAs in both blood plasma and cell culture media co-immunoprecipited with anti-Ago2 antibody in a detergent free environment. This is the first study to show that extracellular miRNAs are predominantly exosomes/microvesicles free and are associated with Ago proteins. We hypothesize that extracellular miRNAs are in the most part by-products of dead cells that remain in extracellular space due to the high stability of the Ago2 protein and Ago2-miRNA complex. Nevertheless, our data does not reject the possibility that some miRNAs can be associated with exosomes. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (34th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Focus vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Protein markers
EV: CD9
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110116 1/1 Homo sapiens Serum dUC
SEC
Szczepanski MJ 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Szczepanski MJ, Szajnik M, Welsh A, Whiteside TL, Boyiadzis M
Journal
Haematologica
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Natural killer cell cytotoxicity is decreased in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in (show more...)BACKGROUND: Natural killer cell cytotoxicity is decreased in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in comparison to that in normal controls. Tumor-derived microvesicles present in patients' sera exert detrimental effects on immune cells and may influence tumor progression. DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the microvesicle protein level, molecular profile and suppression of natural killer cell activity in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. RESULTS: The patients' sera contained higher levels of microvesicles compared to the levels in controls (P<0.001). Isolated microvesicles had a distinct molecular profile: in addition to conventional microvesicle markers, they contained membrane-associated transforming growth factor-?1, MICA/MICB and myeloid blasts markers, CD34, CD33 and CD117. These microvesicles decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity (P<0.002) and down-regulated expression of NKG2D in normal natural killer cells (P<0.001). Sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia contained elevated levels of transforming growth factor-?, and urea-mediated dissociation of microvesicles further increased the levels of this protein. Neutralizing anti-transforming growth factor-?1 antibodies inhibited microvesicle-mediated suppression of natural killer cell activity and NKG2D down-regulation. Interleukin-15 protected natural killer cells from adverse effects of tumor-derived microvesicles. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for the existence in acute myeloid leukemia of a novel mechanism of natural killer cell suppression mediated by tumor-derived microvesicles and for the ability of interleukin-15 to counteract this suppression. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (47th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Serum
Focus vesicles
microvesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + SEC
Protein markers
EV: "LAMP1/ MHC1 "
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Serum
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
180
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
"LAMP1/ MHC1 "
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
"LAMP1/ MHC1 "
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110065 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Sullivan CP 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Sullivan CP, Jay AG, Stack EC, Pakaluk M, Wadlinger E, Fine RE, Wells JM, Morin PJ
Journal
Neurobiol Dis
Abstract
Retromer deficiency has been implicated in sporadic AD and animals deficient in retromer components (show more...)Retromer deficiency has been implicated in sporadic AD and animals deficient in retromer components exhibit pronounced neurodegeneration. Because retromer performs retrograde transport from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus and neuronal A? is found in late endosomal compartments, we speculated that retromer malfunction might enhance amyloidogenic APP processing by promoting interactions between APP and secretase enzymes in late endosomes. We have evaluated changes in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and trafficking as a result of disrupted retromer activity by knockdown of Vps35, a vacuolar sorting protein that is an essential component of the retromer complex. Knocking down retromer activity produced no change in the quantity or cellular distribution of total cellular APP and had no affect on internalization of cell-surface APP. Retromer deficiency did, however, increase the ratio of secreted A?42:A?40 in HEK-293 cells over-expressing APP695, due primarily to a decrease in A?40 secretion. Recent studies suggest that the retromer-trafficked protein, Wntless, is secreted at the synapse in exosome vesicles and that these same vesicles contain A?. We therefore hypothesized that retromer deficiency may be associated with altered exosomal secretion of APP and/or secretase fragments. Holo-APP, Presenilin and APP C-terminal fragments were detected in exosomal vesicles secreted from HEK-293 cells. Levels of total APP C-terminal fragments were significantly increased in exosomes secreted by retromer deficient cells. These data suggest that reduced retromer activity can mimic the effects of familial AD Presenilin mutations on APP processing and promote export of amyloidogenic APP derivatives. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (29th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ TSG101
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Other/Role of retromer disruption in APP processing
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ TSG101
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV110115 1/1 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
UF
Sheng H 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Sheng H, Hassanali S, Nugent C, Wen L, Hamilton-Williams E, Dias P, Dai YD
Journal
J Immunol
Abstract
Exosomes (EXO) are secreted intracellular microparticles that can trigger inflammation and induce Ag (show more...)Exosomes (EXO) are secreted intracellular microparticles that can trigger inflammation and induce Ag-specific immune responses. To test possible roles of EXO in autoimmunity, we isolated small microparticles, mainly EXO, from mouse insulinoma and examined their activities to stimulate the autoimmune responses in NOD mice, a model for human type 1 diabetes. We demonstrate that the EXO contains strong innate stimuli and expresses candidate diabetes autoantigens. They can induce secretion of inflammatory cytokines through a MyD88-dependent pathway, and activate purified APC and result in T cell proliferation. To address whether EXO or the secreted microparticles are possible autoimmune targets causing islet-specific inflammation, we monitored the T cell responses spontaneously developed in prediabetic NOD mice for their reactivity to the EXO, and compared this reactivity between diabetes-susceptible and -resistant congenic mouse strains. We found that older NOD females, which have advanced islet destruction, accumulated more EXO-reactive, IFN-?-producing lymphocytes than younger females or age-matched males, and that pancreatic lymph nodes from the prediabetic NOD, but not from the resistant mice, were also enriched with EXO-reactive Th1 cells. In vivo, immunization with the EXO accelerates insulitis development in nonobese diabetes-resistant mice. Thus, EXO or small microparticles can be recognized by the diabetes-associated autoreactive T cells, supporting that EXO might be a possible autoimmune target and/or insulitis trigger in NOD or congenic mouse strains. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (29th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes / microparticles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + UF
Protein markers
EV: GAD65/ HSC70
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
GAD65/ HSC70
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
GAD65/ HSC70
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV110061 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Density cushion
dUC
UF
Shen C 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Shen C, Hao SG, Zhao CX, Zhu J, Wang C
Journal
J Int Med Res
Abstract
Exosomes are a family of bioactive vesicles and play important roles in antigen presentation. A rece (show more...)Exosomes are a family of bioactive vesicles and play important roles in antigen presentation. A recent phase I clinical trial with an exosome vaccine derived from colorectal cancer has shown minor clinical benefit. Exosomes derived from leukaemia cell lines have been little studied so, in the present study, the immunoprotective effect of exosomes secreted by NB4 cells, a human acute promyelocytic leukaemia cell line, was investigated. NB4-derived exosomes expressed the proteins retinoic acid receptor ? and interstitial cell adhesion molecule 1 and contained heat shock protein 70, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) induced by dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with exosomes were significantly more effective in killing target NB4 cells than CTLs induced by DCs alone. Exosome-based vaccines may be a promising means of prolonging disease-free survival in acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients after induction therapy. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (29th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density cushion + dUC + UF
Protein markers
EV: HSP70
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
HSP70
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV110060 1/1 Homo sapiens Saliva dUC Sharma S 2011 11%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Sharma S, Gillespie BM, Palanisamy V, Gimzewski JK
Journal
Langmuir
Abstract
Exosomes are naturally occurring nanoparticles with unique structure, surface biochemistry, and mech (show more...)Exosomes are naturally occurring nanoparticles with unique structure, surface biochemistry, and mechanical characteristics. These distinct nanometer-sized bioparticles are secreted from the surfaces of oral epithelial cells into saliva and are of interest as oral-cancer biomarkers. We use high- resolution AFM to show single-vesicle quantitative differences between exosomes derived from normal and oral cancer patient's saliva. Compared to normal exosomes (circular, 67.4 ± 2.9 nm), our findings indicate that cancer exosome populations are significantly increased in saliva and display irregular morphologies, increased vesicle size (98.3 ± 4.6 nm), and higher intervesicular aggregation. At the single-vesicle level, cancer exosomes exhibit significantly (P < 0.05) increased CD63 surface densities. To our knowledge, it represents the first report detecting single-exosome surface protein variations. Additionally, high-resolution AFM imaging of cancer saliva samples revealed discrete multivesicular bodies with intraluminal exosomes enclosed. We discuss the use of quantitative, nanoscale ultrastructural and surface biomolecular analysis of saliva exosomes at single-vesicle- and single-protein-level sensitivities as a potentially new oral cancer diagnostic. (hide)
EV-METRIC
11% (40th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Saliva
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: CD63
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
TEM measurements
67.4+-2.9
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Saliva
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
180
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63