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Experiment number
  • If needed, multiple experiments were identified in a single publication based on differing sample types, separation protocols and/or vesicle types of interest.
Species
  • Species of origin of the EVs.
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Experiment number
  • Experiments differ in Isolation method
Experiment number
  • Experiments differ in Isolation method
Details EV-TRACK ID Experiment nr. Species Sample type separation protocol First author Year EV-METRIC
EV200058 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C
DG
Luis A Arteaga-Blanco 2020 100%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Luis A Arteaga-Blanco, Andrés Mojoli, Robson Q Monteiro, Vanessa Sandim, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Filipe Santos Pereira-Dutra, Patrícia T Bozza, Rafael de Oliveira Resende, Dumith Chequer Bou-Habib
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-limited structures derived from outward budding of t (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-limited structures derived from outward budding of the plasma membrane or endosomal system that participate in cellular communication processes through the transport of bioactive molecules to recipient cells. To date, there are no published methodological works showing step-by-step the isolation, characterization and internalization of small EVs secreted by human primary macrophages derived from circulating monocytes (MDM-derived sEVs). Thus, here we aimed to provide an alternative protocol based on differential ultracentrifugation (dUC) to describe small EVs (sEVs) from these cells. Monocyte-derived macrophages were cultured in EV-free medium during 24, 48 or 72 h and, then, EVs were isolated from culture supernatants by (dUC). Macrophages secreted a large amount of sEVs in the first 24 h, with size ranging from 40-150 nm, peaking at 105 nm, as evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The markers Alix, CD63 and CD81 were detected by immunoblotting in EV samples, and the co-localization of CD63 and CD81 after sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation (S-DGUC) indicated the presence of sEVs from late endosomal origin. Confocal fluorescence revealed that the sEVs were internalized by primary macrophages after three hours of co-culture. The methodology here applied aims to contribute for enhancing reproducibility between the limited number of available protocols for the isolation and characterization of MDM-derived sEVs, thus providing basic knowledge in the area of EV methods that can be useful for those investigators working with sEVs released by human primary macrophages derived from circulating monocytes. (hide)
EV-METRIC
100% (99th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
Other / Small EVs
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + DG
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD81/ CD63/ beta actin
non-EV: Calnexin/ Cytochrome c
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.117- 1.181
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker/protocol adaptation for the isolation and characterization of MDM-derived small EVs
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
primary human macrophages derived from circulating monocytes
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
Commercial EDS
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Cell number specification
Yes
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 41 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
130
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
10
Wash: time (min)
70
Wash: Rotor Type
SW 41 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
130 000
Density gradient
Only used for validation of main results
Yes
Density medium
Sucrose
Type
Continuous
Lowest density fraction
10%
Highest density fraction
90%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
11
Sample volume (mL)
0,2
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 41 Ti
Speed (g)
200000
Duration (min)
960
Fraction volume (mL)
2
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
10
Pelleting: duration (min)
70
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 41 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
130
Pelleting-wash: volume per pellet (mL)
10
Pelleting-wash: duration (min)
70
Pelleting-wash: speed (g)
SW 41 Ti
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Lowry-based assay
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ beta actin/ Alix/ CD81
Not detected contaminants
Calnexin/ Cytochrome c
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
40-150
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Scanning-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
80
EV190064 5/10 Homo sapiens Urine DG
(d)(U)C
UF
Dhondt B 2020 100%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Dhondt B, Geeurickx E, Tulkens J, Van Deun J, Vergauwen G, Lippens L, Miinalainen I, Rappu P, Heino J, Ost P, Lumen N, De Wever O, Hendrix A.
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Despite this enormous clinical potential, the plethora of methods to separate EV from biofluids, providing material of highly variable purity, and lacking knowledge regarding methodological repeatability pose a barrier to clinical translation. Urine is considered an ideal proximal fluid for the study of EV in urological cancers due to its direct contact with the urogenital system. We demonstrate that density-based fractionation of urine by bottom-up Optiprep density gradient centrifugation separates EV and soluble proteins with high specificity and repeatability. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urinary EV (uEV) in men with benign and malignant prostate disease allowed us to significantly expand the known human uEV proteome with high specificity and identifies a unique biological profile in prostate cancer not uncovered by the analysis of soluble proteins. In addition, profiling the proteome of EV separated from prostate tumour conditioned medium and matched uEV confirms the specificity of the identified uEV proteome for prostate cancer. Finally, a comparative proteomic analysis with uEV from patients with bladder and renal cancer provided additional evidence of the selective enrichment of protein signatures in uEV reflecting their respective cancer tissues of origin. In conclusion, this study identifies hundreds of previously undetected proteins in uEV of prostate cancer patients and provides a powerful toolbox to map uEV content and contaminants ultimately allowing biomarker discovery in urological cancers. (hide)
EV-METRIC
100% (98th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + UF
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ Alix/ Flotillin1/ CD9
non-EV: Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.087-1.109
Show all info
Study aim
Function/New methodological development/Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
16.5
Sample volume (mL)
1
Orientation
Top-down
Rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1080
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
16
Pelleting: duration (min)
180
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Ultra filtration
Cut-off size (kDa)
10
Membrane type
Regenerated cellulose
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Fluorometric assay (e.g. Qubit, NanoOrange,...)
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ CD9/ TSG101/ Alix
Detected contaminants
Tamm-Horsfall protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
196.5
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
30-150
EV190064 6/10 Homo sapiens Urine DG
(d)(U)C
UF
Dhondt B 2020 100%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Dhondt B, Geeurickx E, Tulkens J, Van Deun J, Vergauwen G, Lippens L, Miinalainen I, Rappu P, Heino J, Ost P, Lumen N, De Wever O, Hendrix A.
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Despite this enormous clinical potential, the plethora of methods to separate EV from biofluids, providing material of highly variable purity, and lacking knowledge regarding methodological repeatability pose a barrier to clinical translation. Urine is considered an ideal proximal fluid for the study of EV in urological cancers due to its direct contact with the urogenital system. We demonstrate that density-based fractionation of urine by bottom-up Optiprep density gradient centrifugation separates EV and soluble proteins with high specificity and repeatability. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urinary EV (uEV) in men with benign and malignant prostate disease allowed us to significantly expand the known human uEV proteome with high specificity and identifies a unique biological profile in prostate cancer not uncovered by the analysis of soluble proteins. In addition, profiling the proteome of EV separated from prostate tumour conditioned medium and matched uEV confirms the specificity of the identified uEV proteome for prostate cancer. Finally, a comparative proteomic analysis with uEV from patients with bladder and renal cancer provided additional evidence of the selective enrichment of protein signatures in uEV reflecting their respective cancer tissues of origin. In conclusion, this study identifies hundreds of previously undetected proteins in uEV of prostate cancer patients and provides a powerful toolbox to map uEV content and contaminants ultimately allowing biomarker discovery in urological cancers. (hide)
EV-METRIC
100% (98th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + UF
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ Alix/ Flotillin1/ CD9
non-EV: Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.087-1.109
Show all info
Study aim
Function/New methodological development/Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
16.5
Sample volume (mL)
0.8
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1080
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
16
Pelleting: duration (min)
180
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Ultra filtration
Cut-off size (kDa)
10
Membrane type
Regenerated cellulose
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Fluorometric assay (e.g. Qubit, NanoOrange,...)
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ CD9/ TSG101/ Alix
Detected contaminants
Tamm-Horsfall protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
131.7
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
30-150
EV190064 7/10 Homo sapiens Urine DG
(d)(U)C
UF
Dhondt B 2020 100%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Dhondt B, Geeurickx E, Tulkens J, Van Deun J, Vergauwen G, Lippens L, Miinalainen I, Rappu P, Heino J, Ost P, Lumen N, De Wever O, Hendrix A.
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Despite this enormous clinical potential, the plethora of methods to separate EV from biofluids, providing material of highly variable purity, and lacking knowledge regarding methodological repeatability pose a barrier to clinical translation. Urine is considered an ideal proximal fluid for the study of EV in urological cancers due to its direct contact with the urogenital system. We demonstrate that density-based fractionation of urine by bottom-up Optiprep density gradient centrifugation separates EV and soluble proteins with high specificity and repeatability. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urinary EV (uEV) in men with benign and malignant prostate disease allowed us to significantly expand the known human uEV proteome with high specificity and identifies a unique biological profile in prostate cancer not uncovered by the analysis of soluble proteins. In addition, profiling the proteome of EV separated from prostate tumour conditioned medium and matched uEV confirms the specificity of the identified uEV proteome for prostate cancer. Finally, a comparative proteomic analysis with uEV from patients with bladder and renal cancer provided additional evidence of the selective enrichment of protein signatures in uEV reflecting their respective cancer tissues of origin. In conclusion, this study identifies hundreds of previously undetected proteins in uEV of prostate cancer patients and provides a powerful toolbox to map uEV content and contaminants ultimately allowing biomarker discovery in urological cancers. (hide)
EV-METRIC
100% (98th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Sample origin
Prostate Cancer
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + UF
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ TSG101/ Flotillin1/ CD9/ Syntenin-1
non-EV: Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics
yes
EV density (g/ml)
1.087-1.109
Show all info
Study aim
Function/New methodological development/Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Sample Condition
Prostate Cancer
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
16.5
Sample volume (mL)
0.8
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1080
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
16
Pelleting: duration (min)
180
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Ultra filtration
Cut-off size (kDa)
10
Membrane type
Regenerated cellulose
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Fluorometric assay (e.g. Qubit, NanoOrange,...)
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ Alix/ Syntenin-1/ TSG101/ CD9
Detected contaminants
Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics database
Yes:
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
100-200
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
30-150
EV190064 8/10 Homo sapiens Urine DG
(d)(U)C
UF
Dhondt B 2020 100%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Dhondt B, Geeurickx E, Tulkens J, Van Deun J, Vergauwen G, Lippens L, Miinalainen I, Rappu P, Heino J, Ost P, Lumen N, De Wever O, Hendrix A.
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Despite this enormous clinical potential, the plethora of methods to separate EV from biofluids, providing material of highly variable purity, and lacking knowledge regarding methodological repeatability pose a barrier to clinical translation. Urine is considered an ideal proximal fluid for the study of EV in urological cancers due to its direct contact with the urogenital system. We demonstrate that density-based fractionation of urine by bottom-up Optiprep density gradient centrifugation separates EV and soluble proteins with high specificity and repeatability. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urinary EV (uEV) in men with benign and malignant prostate disease allowed us to significantly expand the known human uEV proteome with high specificity and identifies a unique biological profile in prostate cancer not uncovered by the analysis of soluble proteins. In addition, profiling the proteome of EV separated from prostate tumour conditioned medium and matched uEV confirms the specificity of the identified uEV proteome for prostate cancer. Finally, a comparative proteomic analysis with uEV from patients with bladder and renal cancer provided additional evidence of the selective enrichment of protein signatures in uEV reflecting their respective cancer tissues of origin. In conclusion, this study identifies hundreds of previously undetected proteins in uEV of prostate cancer patients and provides a powerful toolbox to map uEV content and contaminants ultimately allowing biomarker discovery in urological cancers. (hide)
EV-METRIC
100% (98th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Sample origin
Bladder Cancer
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + UF
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ Flotillin1/ CD9/ Syntenin-1
non-EV: Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics
yes
EV density (g/ml)
1.087-1.109
Show all info
Study aim
Function/New methodological development/Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Sample Condition
Bladder Cancer
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
16.5
Sample volume (mL)
0.8
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1080
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
Size-exclusion chromatography
Ultra filtration
Cut-off size (kDa)
10
Membrane type
Regenerated cellulose
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Fluorometric assay (e.g. Qubit, NanoOrange,...)
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ Alix/ Syntenin-1/ CD9
Detected contaminants
Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics database
Yes:
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
100-200
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
30-150
EV190064 9/10 Homo sapiens Urine DG
(d)(U)C
UF
Dhondt B 2020 100%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Dhondt B, Geeurickx E, Tulkens J, Van Deun J, Vergauwen G, Lippens L, Miinalainen I, Rappu P, Heino J, Ost P, Lumen N, De Wever O, Hendrix A.
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Despite this enormous clinical potential, the plethora of methods to separate EV from biofluids, providing material of highly variable purity, and lacking knowledge regarding methodological repeatability pose a barrier to clinical translation. Urine is considered an ideal proximal fluid for the study of EV in urological cancers due to its direct contact with the urogenital system. We demonstrate that density-based fractionation of urine by bottom-up Optiprep density gradient centrifugation separates EV and soluble proteins with high specificity and repeatability. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urinary EV (uEV) in men with benign and malignant prostate disease allowed us to significantly expand the known human uEV proteome with high specificity and identifies a unique biological profile in prostate cancer not uncovered by the analysis of soluble proteins. In addition, profiling the proteome of EV separated from prostate tumour conditioned medium and matched uEV confirms the specificity of the identified uEV proteome for prostate cancer. Finally, a comparative proteomic analysis with uEV from patients with bladder and renal cancer provided additional evidence of the selective enrichment of protein signatures in uEV reflecting their respective cancer tissues of origin. In conclusion, this study identifies hundreds of previously undetected proteins in uEV of prostate cancer patients and provides a powerful toolbox to map uEV content and contaminants ultimately allowing biomarker discovery in urological cancers. (hide)
EV-METRIC
100% (98th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Sample origin
Renal Cancer
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + UF
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ TSG101/ Flotillin1/ CD9/ Syntenin-1
non-EV: Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics
yes
EV density (g/ml)
1.087-1.109
Show all info
Study aim
Function/New methodological development/Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Sample Condition
Renal Cancer
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
16.5
Sample volume (mL)
0.8
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1080
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
Size-exclusion chromatography
Ultra filtration
Cut-off size (kDa)
10
Membrane type
Regenerated cellulose
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Fluorometric assay (e.g. Qubit, NanoOrange,...)
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ Alix/ Syntenin-1/ TSG101/ CD9
Detected contaminants
Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics database
Yes:
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
100-300
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
30-150
EV190064 10/10 Homo sapiens Tissue DG
(d)(U)C
UF
Dhondt B 2020 100%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Dhondt B, Geeurickx E, Tulkens J, Van Deun J, Vergauwen G, Lippens L, Miinalainen I, Rappu P, Heino J, Ost P, Lumen N, De Wever O, Hendrix A.
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Despite this enormous clinical potential, the plethora of methods to separate EV from biofluids, providing material of highly variable purity, and lacking knowledge regarding methodological repeatability pose a barrier to clinical translation. Urine is considered an ideal proximal fluid for the study of EV in urological cancers due to its direct contact with the urogenital system. We demonstrate that density-based fractionation of urine by bottom-up Optiprep density gradient centrifugation separates EV and soluble proteins with high specificity and repeatability. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urinary EV (uEV) in men with benign and malignant prostate disease allowed us to significantly expand the known human uEV proteome with high specificity and identifies a unique biological profile in prostate cancer not uncovered by the analysis of soluble proteins. In addition, profiling the proteome of EV separated from prostate tumour conditioned medium and matched uEV confirms the specificity of the identified uEV proteome for prostate cancer. Finally, a comparative proteomic analysis with uEV from patients with bladder and renal cancer provided additional evidence of the selective enrichment of protein signatures in uEV reflecting their respective cancer tissues of origin. In conclusion, this study identifies hundreds of previously undetected proteins in uEV of prostate cancer patients and provides a powerful toolbox to map uEV content and contaminants ultimately allowing biomarker discovery in urological cancers. (hide)
EV-METRIC
100% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Tissue
Sample origin
Prostate Cancer
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + UF
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ TSG101/ Flotillin1/ CD9/ Syntenin-1
non-EV: Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics
yes
EV density (g/ml)
1.087-1.109
Show all info
Study aim
Function/New methodological development/Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Tissue
Sample Condition
Prostate Cancer
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
16.5
Sample volume (mL)
0.8
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1080
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
Size-exclusion chromatography
Ultra filtration
Cut-off size (kDa)
10
Membrane type
Regenerated cellulose
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Fluorometric assay (e.g. Qubit, NanoOrange,...)
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ Alix/ Syntenin-1/ TSG101/ CD9
Detected contaminants
Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics database
Yes
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
150.3
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
30-150
EV200065 1/4 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C
Filtration
Victoria Stary 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Victoria Stary, Brigitte Wolf, Daniela Unterleuthner, Julia List, Merjem Talic, Johannes Längle, Andrea Beer, Johanna Strobl, Georg Stary, Helmut Dolznig, Michael Bergmann Md
Journal
Methods & Clinical Development
Abstract
Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) constitute the most abundant immune cells in the tumo (show more...)Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) constitute the most abundant immune cells in the tumor stroma initiating pro-inflammatory (M1) or immunosuppressive (M2) responses depending on their polarization status. Advances in tumor immunotherapy call for a detailed understanding of potential immunogenic mechanisms of irradiation routinely applied in rectal cancer patients. Methods: To test the effects of radiotherapy on TAM, we ex vivo irradiated tissue samples of human rectal cancer and assessed the phenotype by flow cytometry. We furthermore evaluated the distribution of leucocyte subsets in tissue sections of patients after short-course radiotherapy and compared findings to non-pretreated rectal cancer using an immunostaining approach. Organotypic assays (OTA) consisting of macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblast and cancer cell lines were used to dissect the immunological consequences of irradiation in macrophages. Results: We demonstrate that short-course neoadjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients is associated with a shift in the polarization of TAM towards an M1-like pro-inflammatory phenotype. In addition, ex vivo irradiation caused an increase in the phagocytic activity and enhanced expression of markers associated with stimulatory signals necessary for T-cell activation. In OTA we observed that this alteration in macrophage polarization could be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EV) derived from irradiated tumor cells. We identified high mobility group box 1 in EV from irradiated tumor cells as a potential effector signal in that crosstalk. Conclusions: Our findings highlight macrophages as potential effector cells upon irradiation in rectal cancer by diminishing their immunosuppressive phenotype and activate pro-inflammation. Our data indicate that clinically applied short-term radiotherapy for rectal cancer may be exploited to stimulate immunogenic macrophages and suggest to target the polarization status of macrophages to enhance future immunotherapeutic strategies. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (97th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD9/ CD81/ TSG101
non-EV: Calreticulin
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
DLD1
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
>=18h at >=100,000g
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Cell number specification
Yes
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
T-1250
Pelleting: speed (g)
243836
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
1
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
SW 41 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
92,500
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ CD81/ TSG101
Not detected contaminants
Calreticulin
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
132
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM/ Cryo-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV200065 2/4 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C
Filtration
Victoria Stary 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Victoria Stary, Brigitte Wolf, Daniela Unterleuthner, Julia List, Merjem Talic, Johannes Längle, Andrea Beer, Johanna Strobl, Georg Stary, Helmut Dolznig, Michael Bergmann Md
Journal
Methods & Clinical Development
Abstract
Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) constitute the most abundant immune cells in the tumo (show more...)Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) constitute the most abundant immune cells in the tumor stroma initiating pro-inflammatory (M1) or immunosuppressive (M2) responses depending on their polarization status. Advances in tumor immunotherapy call for a detailed understanding of potential immunogenic mechanisms of irradiation routinely applied in rectal cancer patients. Methods: To test the effects of radiotherapy on TAM, we ex vivo irradiated tissue samples of human rectal cancer and assessed the phenotype by flow cytometry. We furthermore evaluated the distribution of leucocyte subsets in tissue sections of patients after short-course radiotherapy and compared findings to non-pretreated rectal cancer using an immunostaining approach. Organotypic assays (OTA) consisting of macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblast and cancer cell lines were used to dissect the immunological consequences of irradiation in macrophages. Results: We demonstrate that short-course neoadjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients is associated with a shift in the polarization of TAM towards an M1-like pro-inflammatory phenotype. In addition, ex vivo irradiation caused an increase in the phagocytic activity and enhanced expression of markers associated with stimulatory signals necessary for T-cell activation. In OTA we observed that this alteration in macrophage polarization could be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EV) derived from irradiated tumor cells. We identified high mobility group box 1 in EV from irradiated tumor cells as a potential effector signal in that crosstalk. Conclusions: Our findings highlight macrophages as potential effector cells upon irradiation in rectal cancer by diminishing their immunosuppressive phenotype and activate pro-inflammation. Our data indicate that clinically applied short-term radiotherapy for rectal cancer may be exploited to stimulate immunogenic macrophages and suggest to target the polarization status of macrophages to enhance future immunotherapeutic strategies. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (97th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
gamma irradiation
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD9/ CD81/ TSG101
non-EV: Calreticulin
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
gamma irradiation
EV-producing cells
DLD1
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
>=18h at >=100,000g
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Cell number specification
Yes
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
T-1250
Pelleting: speed (g)
243836
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
1
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
SW 41 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
92,500
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ CD81/ TSG101
Not detected contaminants
Calreticulin
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
137
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM/ Cryo-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV200065 3/4 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C
Filtration
Victoria Stary 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Victoria Stary, Brigitte Wolf, Daniela Unterleuthner, Julia List, Merjem Talic, Johannes Längle, Andrea Beer, Johanna Strobl, Georg Stary, Helmut Dolznig, Michael Bergmann Md
Journal
Methods & Clinical Development
Abstract
Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) constitute the most abundant immune cells in the tumo (show more...)Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) constitute the most abundant immune cells in the tumor stroma initiating pro-inflammatory (M1) or immunosuppressive (M2) responses depending on their polarization status. Advances in tumor immunotherapy call for a detailed understanding of potential immunogenic mechanisms of irradiation routinely applied in rectal cancer patients. Methods: To test the effects of radiotherapy on TAM, we ex vivo irradiated tissue samples of human rectal cancer and assessed the phenotype by flow cytometry. We furthermore evaluated the distribution of leucocyte subsets in tissue sections of patients after short-course radiotherapy and compared findings to non-pretreated rectal cancer using an immunostaining approach. Organotypic assays (OTA) consisting of macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblast and cancer cell lines were used to dissect the immunological consequences of irradiation in macrophages. Results: We demonstrate that short-course neoadjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients is associated with a shift in the polarization of TAM towards an M1-like pro-inflammatory phenotype. In addition, ex vivo irradiation caused an increase in the phagocytic activity and enhanced expression of markers associated with stimulatory signals necessary for T-cell activation. In OTA we observed that this alteration in macrophage polarization could be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EV) derived from irradiated tumor cells. We identified high mobility group box 1 in EV from irradiated tumor cells as a potential effector signal in that crosstalk. Conclusions: Our findings highlight macrophages as potential effector cells upon irradiation in rectal cancer by diminishing their immunosuppressive phenotype and activate pro-inflammation. Our data indicate that clinically applied short-term radiotherapy for rectal cancer may be exploited to stimulate immunogenic macrophages and suggest to target the polarization status of macrophages to enhance future immunotherapeutic strategies. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (97th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD9/ CD81/ TSG101
non-EV: Calreticulin
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
HCT116
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
>=18h at >=100,000g
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Cell number specification
Yes
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
T-1250
Pelleting: speed (g)
243836
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
1
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
SW 41 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
92,500
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ CD81/ TSG101
Not detected contaminants
Calreticulin
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
157
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM/ Cryo-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV200065 4/4 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C
Filtration
Victoria Stary 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Victoria Stary, Brigitte Wolf, Daniela Unterleuthner, Julia List, Merjem Talic, Johannes Längle, Andrea Beer, Johanna Strobl, Georg Stary, Helmut Dolznig, Michael Bergmann Md
Journal
Methods & Clinical Development
Abstract
Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) constitute the most abundant immune cells in the tumo (show more...)Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) constitute the most abundant immune cells in the tumor stroma initiating pro-inflammatory (M1) or immunosuppressive (M2) responses depending on their polarization status. Advances in tumor immunotherapy call for a detailed understanding of potential immunogenic mechanisms of irradiation routinely applied in rectal cancer patients. Methods: To test the effects of radiotherapy on TAM, we ex vivo irradiated tissue samples of human rectal cancer and assessed the phenotype by flow cytometry. We furthermore evaluated the distribution of leucocyte subsets in tissue sections of patients after short-course radiotherapy and compared findings to non-pretreated rectal cancer using an immunostaining approach. Organotypic assays (OTA) consisting of macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblast and cancer cell lines were used to dissect the immunological consequences of irradiation in macrophages. Results: We demonstrate that short-course neoadjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients is associated with a shift in the polarization of TAM towards an M1-like pro-inflammatory phenotype. In addition, ex vivo irradiation caused an increase in the phagocytic activity and enhanced expression of markers associated with stimulatory signals necessary for T-cell activation. In OTA we observed that this alteration in macrophage polarization could be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EV) derived from irradiated tumor cells. We identified high mobility group box 1 in EV from irradiated tumor cells as a potential effector signal in that crosstalk. Conclusions: Our findings highlight macrophages as potential effector cells upon irradiation in rectal cancer by diminishing their immunosuppressive phenotype and activate pro-inflammation. Our data indicate that clinically applied short-term radiotherapy for rectal cancer may be exploited to stimulate immunogenic macrophages and suggest to target the polarization status of macrophages to enhance future immunotherapeutic strategies. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (97th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
gamma irradiation
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD9/ CD81/ TSG101
non-EV: Calreticulin
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
gamma irradiation
EV-producing cells
HCT116
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
>=18h at >=100,000g
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Cell number specification
Yes
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
T-1250
Pelleting: speed (g)
243836
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
1
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
SW 41 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
92,500
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ CD81/ TSG101
Not detected contaminants
Calreticulin
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
161
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM/ Cryo-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV200036 1/16 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant DG
(d)(U)C
Commercial method
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora, Jose Antonio Rodríguez-Navarro, Ana O'Loghlen
Journal
Cell metab
Abstract
Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, includin (show more...)Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, including cellular senescence. However, there is proof that certain features of aging and senescence can be ameliorated. Here, we provide evidence that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) isolated from primary fibroblasts of young human donors ameliorate certain biomarkers of senescence in cells derived from old and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome donors. Importantly, sEVs from young cells ameliorate senescence in a variety of tissues in old mice. Mechanistically, we identified sEVs to have intrinsic glutathione-S-transferase activity partially due to the high levels of expression of the glutathione-related protein (GSTM2). Transfection of recombinant GSTM2 into sEVs derived from old fibroblasts restores their antioxidant capacity. sEVs increase the levels of reduced glutathione and decrease oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, our data provide an indication of the potential of sEVs as regenerative therapy in aging. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (97th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Young donors
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + Commercial method
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ TSG101/ GSTM2
non-EV: Calnexin/ Actin-beta
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.074-1.106
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Young donors
EV-producing cells
human skin primary fibroblasts
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >= 100,000g
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
15
Wash: time (min)
80
Wash: Rotor Type
T-865
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
3
Lowest density fraction
10%
Highest density fraction
60%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
5.5
Sample volume (mL)
1.5
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
T-865
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
720
Fraction volume (mL)
0.7
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
15
Pelleting: duration (min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Pelleting-wash: volume per pellet (mL)
15
Pelleting-wash: duration (min)
80
Pelleting-wash: speed (g)
T-865
Commercial kit
qEV
EV-subtype
Distinction between multiple subtypes
Size
Used subtypes
<200 nm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ TSG101/ GSTM2
Not detected contaminants
Calnexin/ Actin-beta
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
<200
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
Number of particles of starting sample E08-E09
EV200036 3/16 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant DG
(d)(U)C
Commercial method
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora, Jose Antonio Rodríguez-Navarro, Ana O'Loghlen
Journal
Cell metab
Abstract
Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, includin (show more...)Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, including cellular senescence. However, there is proof that certain features of aging and senescence can be ameliorated. Here, we provide evidence that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) isolated from primary fibroblasts of young human donors ameliorate certain biomarkers of senescence in cells derived from old and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome donors. Importantly, sEVs from young cells ameliorate senescence in a variety of tissues in old mice. Mechanistically, we identified sEVs to have intrinsic glutathione-S-transferase activity partially due to the high levels of expression of the glutathione-related protein (GSTM2). Transfection of recombinant GSTM2 into sEVs derived from old fibroblasts restores their antioxidant capacity. sEVs increase the levels of reduced glutathione and decrease oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, our data provide an indication of the potential of sEVs as regenerative therapy in aging. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (97th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Old donors
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + Commercial method
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ TSG101/ GSTM2
non-EV: Calnexin/ Actin-beta
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.074-1.106
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Old donors
EV-producing cells
human skin primary fibroblasts
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >= 100,000g
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
15
Wash: time (min)
80
Wash: Rotor Type
T-865
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
3
Lowest density fraction
10%
Highest density fraction
60%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
5.5
Sample volume (mL)
1.5
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
T-865
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
720
Fraction volume (mL)
0.7
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
15
Pelleting: duration (min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Pelleting-wash: volume per pellet (mL)
15
Pelleting-wash: duration (min)
80
Pelleting-wash: speed (g)
T-865
Commercial kit
qEV
EV-subtype
Distinction between multiple subtypes
Size
Used subtypes
<200 nm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ TSG101/ GSTM2
Not detected contaminants
Calnexin/ Actin-beta
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
<200
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
Number of particles of starting sample E08-E09
EV190084 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C
Filtration
Greet Merckx 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Greet Merckx, Baharak Hosseinkhani, Sören Kuypers, Sarah Deville, Joy Irobi, Inge Nelissen, Luc Michiels, Ivo Lambrichts, Annelies Bronckaers
Journal
Cells
Abstract
Blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is a key process for successful tooth regeneration. Bone marr (show more...)Blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is a key process for successful tooth regeneration. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) possess paracrine proangiogenic properties, which are, at least partially, induced by their extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, the isolation of BM-MSCs is associated with several drawbacks, which could be overcome by MSC-like cells of the teeth, called dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs). This study aims to compare the angiogenic content and functions of DPSC and BM-MSC EVs and conditioned medium (CM). The angiogenic protein profile of DPSC- and BM-MSC-derived EVs, CM and EV-depleted CM was screened by an antibody array and confirmed by ELISA. Functional angiogenic effects were tested in transwell migration and chicken chorioallantoic membrane assays. All secretion fractions contained several pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins and induced in vitro endothelial cell motility. This chemotactic potential was higher for (EV-depleted) CM, compared to EVs with a stronger effect for BM-MSCs. Finally, BM-MSC CM, but not DPSC CM, nor EVs, increased in ovo angiogenesis. In conclusion, we showed that DPSCs are less potent in relation to endothelial cell chemotaxis and in ovo neovascularization, compared to BM-MSCs, which emphasizes the importance of choice of cell type and secretion fraction for stem cell-based regenerative therapies in inducing angiogenesis. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (97th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD9/ CD63/ ANXA2/ CD81
non-EV: Bax
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function/Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
Dental pulp stromal cells
EV-harvesting Medium
Serum free medium
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
180
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 70 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ CD63/ ANXA2/ CD81
Not detected contaminants
Bax
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV190084 2/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C
Filtration
Greet Merckx 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Greet Merckx, Baharak Hosseinkhani, Sören Kuypers, Sarah Deville, Joy Irobi, Inge Nelissen, Luc Michiels, Ivo Lambrichts, Annelies Bronckaers
Journal
Cells
Abstract
Blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is a key process for successful tooth regeneration. Bone marr (show more...)Blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is a key process for successful tooth regeneration. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) possess paracrine proangiogenic properties, which are, at least partially, induced by their extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, the isolation of BM-MSCs is associated with several drawbacks, which could be overcome by MSC-like cells of the teeth, called dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs). This study aims to compare the angiogenic content and functions of DPSC and BM-MSC EVs and conditioned medium (CM). The angiogenic protein profile of DPSC- and BM-MSC-derived EVs, CM and EV-depleted CM was screened by an antibody array and confirmed by ELISA. Functional angiogenic effects were tested in transwell migration and chicken chorioallantoic membrane assays. All secretion fractions contained several pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins and induced in vitro endothelial cell motility. This chemotactic potential was higher for (EV-depleted) CM, compared to EVs with a stronger effect for BM-MSCs. Finally, BM-MSC CM, but not DPSC CM, nor EVs, increased in ovo angiogenesis. In conclusion, we showed that DPSCs are less potent in relation to endothelial cell chemotaxis and in ovo neovascularization, compared to BM-MSCs, which emphasizes the importance of choice of cell type and secretion fraction for stem cell-based regenerative therapies in inducing angiogenesis. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (97th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD9/ CD63/ ANXA2/ CD81
non-EV: Bax
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function/Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells
EV-harvesting Medium
Serum free medium
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
180
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 70 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ CD63/ ANXA2/ CD81
Not detected contaminants
Bax
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV190079 1/2 Homo sapiens kidney tissue supernatant (d)(U)C
Filtration
Zieren RC 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zieren RC, Dong L, Pierorazio PM, Pienta KJ, de Reijke TM, Amend SR.
Journal
Med Oncol
Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma is a lethal disease that is often discovered incidentally. New non-invasive bio (show more...)Renal cell carcinoma is a lethal disease that is often discovered incidentally. New non-invasive biomarkers are needed to aid diagnosis and treatment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), membranous vesicles secreted by all cells, are a promising potential source for cancer biomarkers, but new methods are required that are both sensitive and specific for cancer identification. We have developed an EV isolation protocol optimized for kidney tumor and normal kidney tissue that yields a high vesicle concentration, confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NanoSight) and by nanoscale flow cytometry (NanoFCM). Using Western blot, we confirmed presence of EV markers CD81, CD63, flotillin-1, and absence of cellular debris, calnexin. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrate intact membranous EVs. This new method improves existing protocols with additional steps to reduce contaminants in the EV product. Characterization of our isolation product confirms successful isolation of EVs with minimal contamination. The particle yields of our protocol are consistent and high as assessed by both standard and novel methods. This optimized protocol will contribute to biomarker discovery and biological studies of EVs in renal cancer. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
kidney tissue supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD81/ CD63/ Flotillin1
non-EV: Calnexin
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
New methodological development/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
kidney tissue supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 70 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
30
Wash: time (min)
120
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 70 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Filtration steps
> 0.45 µm, 0.45µm > x > 0.22µm,
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ CD63/ CD81
Not detected contaminants
Calnexin
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Modus
Reported size (nm)
163
EV concentration
Yes
Particle analysis: flow cytometry
Flow cytometer type
NanoFCM
Hardware adjustment
Instrument was manufactured for small EVs
Calibration bead size
200
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report type
Modus
Report size
57
EV-concentration
Yes
EV190079 2/2 Homo sapiens kidney tissue supernatant (d)(U)C
Filtration
Zieren RC 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zieren RC, Dong L, Pierorazio PM, Pienta KJ, de Reijke TM, Amend SR.
Journal
Med Oncol
Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma is a lethal disease that is often discovered incidentally. New non-invasive bio (show more...)Renal cell carcinoma is a lethal disease that is often discovered incidentally. New non-invasive biomarkers are needed to aid diagnosis and treatment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), membranous vesicles secreted by all cells, are a promising potential source for cancer biomarkers, but new methods are required that are both sensitive and specific for cancer identification. We have developed an EV isolation protocol optimized for kidney tumor and normal kidney tissue that yields a high vesicle concentration, confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NanoSight) and by nanoscale flow cytometry (NanoFCM). Using Western blot, we confirmed presence of EV markers CD81, CD63, flotillin-1, and absence of cellular debris, calnexin. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrate intact membranous EVs. This new method improves existing protocols with additional steps to reduce contaminants in the EV product. Characterization of our isolation product confirms successful isolation of EVs with minimal contamination. The particle yields of our protocol are consistent and high as assessed by both standard and novel methods. This optimized protocol will contribute to biomarker discovery and biological studies of EVs in renal cancer. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
kidney tissue supernatant
Sample origin
kidney cancer
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: CD81/ CD63/ Flotillin1
non-EV: Calnexin
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
New methodological development/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
kidney tissue supernatant
Sample Condition
kidney cancer
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 70 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
30
Wash: time (min)
120
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 70 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Filtration steps
> 0.45 µm, 0.45µm > x > 0.22µm,
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ CD63/ CD81
Not detected contaminants
Calnexin
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Modus
Reported size (nm)
133
EV concentration
Yes
Particle analysis: flow cytometry
Flow cytometer type
NanoFCM
Hardware adjustment
Instrument was manufactured for small EVs
Calibration bead size
200
Report type
Modus
Reported size (nm)
57
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report type
Modus
Report size
57
EV-concentration
Yes
EV190076 1/1 Homo sapiens Urine (d)(U)C Musante L 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Musante L, Bontha SV, La Salvia S, Fernandez-Piñeros A, Lannigan J, Le TH, Mas V, Erdbrügger U
Journal
Sci Rep
Abstract
Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) provide bio-markers for kidney and urogenital diseases. Centri (show more...)Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) provide bio-markers for kidney and urogenital diseases. Centrifugation is the most common method used to enrich uEVs. However, a majority of studies to date have focused on the ultracentrifugation pellet, potentially losing a novel source of important biomarkers that could be obtained at lower centrifugation. Thus, the aim of this study is to rigorously characterize for the first time uEVs in the low speed pellet and determine the minimal volume of urine required for proteomic analysis (≥9.0 mL urine) and gene ontology classification identified 75% of the protein as extracellular exosomes. Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (≥3.0 mL urine) provided evidence of a heterogeneous population of EVs for size and morphology independent of uromodulin filaments. Western blot detected several specific uEV kidney and EV markers (≥4.5 mL urine per lane). microRNAs quantification by qPCR was possible with urine volume as low as 0.5 mL. Particle enumeration with tunable resistive pulse sensing, nano particles tracking analysis and single EV high throughput imaging flow cytometry are possible starting from 0.5 and 3.0 mL of urine respectively. This work characterizes a neglected source of uEVs and provides guidance with regard to volume of urine necessary to carry out multi-omic studies and reveals novel aspects of uEV analysis such as autofluorescence of podocyte origin. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (95th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ Podocin/ Podocalyxin/ Collectrin/ IGFBP7/ CD9
non-EV: Calnexin/ Tamm-Horsfall protein/ Albumin/ Calreticulin
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
30
Pelleting: rotor type
FA-45-24-11
Pelleting: speed (g)
21130
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
1.2
Wash: time (min)
30
Wash: Rotor Type
FA-45-24-11
Wash: speed (g)
21130
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Bradford
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ Podocalyxin/ Collectrin/ Podocin/ TSG101
Detected contaminants
Calnexin/ Calreticulin/ Albumin/ Tamm-Horsfall protein
Flow cytometry
Type of Flow cytometry
ImageStreamX Mark II
Hardware adjustments
Imaging flow cytometry (IFCM) is a method combining flow cytometry with imaging. All signals are collected through microscope objectives and quantified based on images detected by charge coupled devic
Detected EV-associated proteins
Podocalyxin/ Collectrin/ IGFBP7
Proteomics database
No
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Modus
Reported size (nm)
175
EV concentration
Yes
TRPS
Report type
Modus
Reported size (nm)
173
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Cryo-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV190064 1/10 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant DG
(d)(U)C
Filtration
UF
Dhondt B 2020 78%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Dhondt B, Geeurickx E, Tulkens J, Van Deun J, Vergauwen G, Lippens L, Miinalainen I, Rappu P, Heino J, Ost P, Lumen N, De Wever O, Hendrix A.
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Despite this enormous clinical potential, the plethora of methods to separate EV from biofluids, providing material of highly variable purity, and lacking knowledge regarding methodological repeatability pose a barrier to clinical translation. Urine is considered an ideal proximal fluid for the study of EV in urological cancers due to its direct contact with the urogenital system. We demonstrate that density-based fractionation of urine by bottom-up Optiprep density gradient centrifugation separates EV and soluble proteins with high specificity and repeatability. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urinary EV (uEV) in men with benign and malignant prostate disease allowed us to significantly expand the known human uEV proteome with high specificity and identifies a unique biological profile in prostate cancer not uncovered by the analysis of soluble proteins. In addition, profiling the proteome of EV separated from prostate tumour conditioned medium and matched uEV confirms the specificity of the identified uEV proteome for prostate cancer. Finally, a comparative proteomic analysis with uEV from patients with bladder and renal cancer provided additional evidence of the selective enrichment of protein signatures in uEV reflecting their respective cancer tissues of origin. In conclusion, this study identifies hundreds of previously undetected proteins in uEV of prostate cancer patients and provides a powerful toolbox to map uEV content and contaminants ultimately allowing biomarker discovery in urological cancers. (hide)
EV-METRIC
78% (97th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
pMET7-gag-EGFP transfected
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + Filtration + UF
Protein markers
EV: Flotillin1/ Syntenin-1/ gag-EGFP
non-EV:
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.087-1.109
Show all info
Study aim
Function/New methodological development/Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
pMET7-gag-EGFP transfected
EV-producing cells
HEK293T
EV-harvesting Medium
Serum free medium
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
180
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
16.5
Sample volume (mL)
1
Orientation
Top-down
Rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1080
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
16
Pelleting: duration (min)
180
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Filtration steps
0.45µm > x > 0.22µm, 0.22µm or 0.2µm
Ultra filtration
Cut-off size (kDa)
10
Membrane type
Regenerated cellulose
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ Syntenin-1/ gag-EGFP
Fluorescent NTA
Relevant measurements variables specified?
NA
Detected EV-associated proteins
gag-EGFP
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
100-200
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Immuno-EM
Proteïns
CD63
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV200042 1/2 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant DG
(d)(U)C
DC
Filtration
Laura Bouchareychas 2020 75%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Laura Bouchareychas, Phat Duong, Sergio Covarrubias, Eric Alsop, Tuan Anh Phu, Allen Chung, Michael Gomes, David Wong, Bessie Meechoovet, Allyson Capili, Ryo Yamamoto, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Michael T McManus, Susan Carpenter, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Robert L Raffai
Journal
Cell Rep
Abstract
Developing strategies that promote the resolution of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis remai (show more...)Developing strategies that promote the resolution of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis remains a major therapeutic challenge. Here, we show that exosomes produced by naive bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM-exo) contain anti-inflammatory microRNA-99a/146b/378a that are further increased in exosomes produced by BMDM polarized with IL-4 (BMDM-IL-4-exo). These exosomal microRNAs suppress inflammation by targeting NF-κB and TNF-α signaling and foster M2 polarization in recipient macrophages. Repeated infusions of BMDM-IL-4-exo into Apoe-/- mice fed a Western diet reduce excessive hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and thereby the number of myeloid cells in the circulation and macrophages in aortic root lesions. This also leads to a reduction in necrotic lesion areas that collectively stabilize atheroma. Thus, BMDM-IL-4-exo may represent a useful therapeutic approach for atherosclerosis and other inflammatory disorders by targeting NF-κB and TNF-α via microRNA cargo delivery. (hide)
EV-METRIC
75% (95th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
exosome
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + DC + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ Flotillin1/ CD9
non-EV: Calnexin/ GM130
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.09
Show all info
Study aim
Function/Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs)
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
>=18h at >= 100,000g
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Cell number specification
Yes
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
12
Sample volume (mL)
3
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 40 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1080
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
None
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Density cushion
Density medium
Iodixanol
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Fluorometric assay (e.g. Qubit, NanoOrange,...)
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ CD9/ Alix
Not detected contaminants
Calnexin/ GM130
Characterization: RNA analysis
RNAse treatment
Moment of RNAse treatment
After
RNAse type
Other;RNase A/T1 Mix
RNAse concentration
0.4
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
75.66
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
Yes, as number of particles per million cells 2.70E+09
EV190077 1/4 Bos taurus Milk DG
(d)(U)C
milk acidification
casein removal
SEC
Andrea Ridolfi 2020 75%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Andrea Ridolfi, Marco Brucale, Costanza Montis, Lucrezia Caselli, Lucia Paolini, Anne Borup, Anders T Boysen, Francesca Loria, Martijn J C van Herwijnen, Marije Kleinjan, Peter Nejsum, Natasa Zarovni, Marca H M Wauben, Debora Berti, Paolo Bergese, Francesco Valle
Journal
Anal Chem
Abstract
The mechanical properties of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to influence their biological fu (show more...)The mechanical properties of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to influence their biological function, in terms of, e.g., cellular adhesion, endo/exocytosis, cellular uptake, and mechanosensing. EVs have a characteristic nanomechanical response which can be probed via force spectroscopy (FS) and exploited to single them out from nonvesicular contaminants or to discriminate between subtypes. However, measuring the nanomechanical characteristics of individual EVs via FS is a labor-intensive and time-consuming task, usually limiting this approach to specialists. Herein, we describe a simple atomic force microscopy based experimental procedure for the simultaneous nanomechanical and morphological analysis of several hundred individual nanosized EVs within the hour time scale, using basic AFM equipment and skills and only needing freely available software for data analysis. This procedure yields a "nanomechanical snapshot" of an EV sample which can be used to discriminate between subpopulations of vesicular and nonvesicular objects in the same sample and between populations of vesicles with similar sizes but different mechanical characteristics. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach to EVs obtained from three very different sources (human colorectal carcinoma cell culture, raw bovine milk, and Ascaris suum nematode excretions), recovering size and stiffness distributions of individual vesicles in a sample. EV stiffness values measured with our high-throughput method are in very good quantitative accord with values obtained by FS techniques which measure EVs one at a time. We show how our procedure can detect EV samples contamination by nonvesicular aggregates and how it can quickly attest the presence of EVs even in samples for which no established assays and/or commercial kits are available (e.g., Ascaris EVs), thus making it a valuable tool for the rapid assessment of EV samples during the development of isolation/enrichment protocols by EV researchers. As a side observation, we show that all measured EVs have a strikingly similar stiffness, further reinforcing the hypothesis that their mechanical characteristics could have a functional role. (hide)
EV-METRIC
75% (96th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Milk
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + milk acidification + casein removal + SEC
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ CD63/ Flotillin1/ CD9/ MFGE8
non-EV: beta-lactoglobulin/ Casein
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.06-1.19
Show all info
Study aim
Other/Biophysical characterization
Sample
Species
Bos taurus
Sample Type
Milk
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
16
Lowest density fraction
10%
Highest density fraction
60%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
12.45
Sample volume (mL)
6.5
Orientation
Top-down
Rotor type
SW 40 Ti
Speed (g)
197000
Duration (min)
960
Fraction volume (mL)
0.5
Fraction processing
Size-exclusion chromatography
Size-exclusion chromatography
Total column volume (mL)
15
Sample volume/column (mL)
2
Resin type
Sephadex G-100
Other
Name other separation method
milk acidification;casein removal
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Other;Colorimetric Nanoplasmonic Assay
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ CD9/ CD63/ MFGE8/ TSG101
Detected contaminants
beta-lactoglobulin
Not detected contaminants
Casein
EM
EM-type
Atomic force-EM
Image type
Wide-field
Report size (nm)
40-160
EV190064 3/10 Homo sapiens Urine (d)(U)C
SEC
SEC (non-commercial)
UF
Dhondt B 2020 75%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Dhondt B, Geeurickx E, Tulkens J, Van Deun J, Vergauwen G, Lippens L, Miinalainen I, Rappu P, Heino J, Ost P, Lumen N, De Wever O, Hendrix A.
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Despite this enormous clinical potential, the plethora of methods to separate EV from biofluids, providing material of highly variable purity, and lacking knowledge regarding methodological repeatability pose a barrier to clinical translation. Urine is considered an ideal proximal fluid for the study of EV in urological cancers due to its direct contact with the urogenital system. We demonstrate that density-based fractionation of urine by bottom-up Optiprep density gradient centrifugation separates EV and soluble proteins with high specificity and repeatability. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urinary EV (uEV) in men with benign and malignant prostate disease allowed us to significantly expand the known human uEV proteome with high specificity and identifies a unique biological profile in prostate cancer not uncovered by the analysis of soluble proteins. In addition, profiling the proteome of EV separated from prostate tumour conditioned medium and matched uEV confirms the specificity of the identified uEV proteome for prostate cancer. Finally, a comparative proteomic analysis with uEV from patients with bladder and renal cancer provided additional evidence of the selective enrichment of protein signatures in uEV reflecting their respective cancer tissues of origin. In conclusion, this study identifies hundreds of previously undetected proteins in uEV of prostate cancer patients and provides a powerful toolbox to map uEV content and contaminants ultimately allowing biomarker discovery in urological cancers. (hide)
EV-METRIC
75% (93rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C + SEC + SEC (non-commercial) + UF
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ Flotillin1/ CD9
non-EV: Tamm-Horsfall protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function/New methodological development/Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Ultra filtration
Cut-off size (kDa)
10
Membrane type
Regenerated cellulose
Size-exclusion chromatography
Total column volume (mL)
10
Sample volume/column (mL)
1
Resin type
Sepharose CL-2B
Other
Name other separation method
Size-exclusion chromatography (non-commercial)
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Fluorometric assay (e.g. Qubit, NanoOrange,...)
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ Alix/ CD9
Detected contaminants
Tamm-Horsfall protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
100-200
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
130
EV190037 1/1 Homo sapiens Blood plasma Filtration
qEV
Laetitia S. Gaspar 2020 75%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Laetitia S. Gaspar, Magda M. Santana, Carina Henriques, Maria M. Pinto, Teresa M. Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Henrique Girão, Rui Jorge Nobre, Luís Pereira de Almeida
Journal
Methods & Clinical Development
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous structures that protect RNAs from damage when circulatin (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous structures that protect RNAs from damage when circulating in complex biological fluids, such as plasma. RNAs are extremely specific to health and disease, being powerful tools for diagnosis, treatment response monitoring, and development of new therapeutic strategies for several diseases. In this context, EVs are potential sources of disease biomarkers and promising delivery vehicles. However, standardized and reproducible EV isolation protocols easy to implement in clinical practice are missing. Here, a size exclusion chromatography-based protocol for EV-isolation from human plasma was optimized. We propose a workflow to isolate EVs for transcriptional research that allows concomitant analysis of particle number and size, total protein, and quantification of a major plasma contaminant. This protocol yields 7.54 × 109 ± 1.22 × 108 particles, quantified by nanoparticle tracking analysis, with a mean size of 115.7 ± 11.12 nm and a mode size of 83.13 ± 4.72 nm, in a ratio of 1.19 × 1010 ± 7.38 × 109 particles/μg of protein, determined by Micro Bicinchoninic Acid (BCA) Protein Assay, and 3.09 ± 0.7 ng RNA, assessed by fluorescence-based RNA-quantitation, from only 900 μL of plasma. The protocol is fast and easy to implement and has potential for application in biomarkers research, therapeutic strategies development, and clinical practice. (hide)
EV-METRIC
75% (98th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Filtration + qEV
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ Analysed only by WB and Dot Blot. We used ELISA to analyse the presence of contaminants/ CD63/ CD81/ GAPDH/ Anxa5/ Alix/ ICAM/ Flotillin1/ LAMP2/ EpCAM
non-EV: Calnexin/ Albumin/ GM130/ ApoB100/ ApoA1
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Filtration steps
> 0.45 µm,
Commercial kit
qEV
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
microBCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ LAMP2/ CD81
Not detected EV-associated proteins
GAPDH
Not detected contaminants
Calnexin
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Analysed only by WB and Dot Blot. We used ELISA to analyse the presence of contaminants
Detected contaminants
ApoA1/ ApoB100/ Albumin
Other 1
Dot Blot Array
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ CD63/ EpCAM/ ICAM/ Anxa5/ CD81/ TSG101
Not detected EV-associated proteins
Alix
Not detected contaminants
GM130
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
89.04
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV200012 1/2 Rattus norvegicus Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C Doreen Matthies 2020 67%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Doreen Matthies, Nathanael Y J Lee, Ian Gatera, H Amalia Pasolli, Xiaowei Zhao, Hui Liu, Deepika Walpita, Zhe Liu, Zhiheng Yu, Maria S Ioannou
Journal
Sci Rep
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication and have been imp (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication and have been implicated in several pathologies including those of the central nervous system. They are released by all cell types, including neurons, and are highly heterogenous in size and composition. Yet much remains unknown regarding the biophysical characteristics of different EVs. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM), we analyzed the size distribution and morphology of EVs released from primary cortical neurons. We discovered massive macromolecular clusters on the luminal face of EV membranes. These clusters are predominantly found on medium-sized vesicles, suggesting that they may be specific to microvesicles as opposed to exosomes. We propose that these clusters serve as microdomains for EV signaling and play an important role in EV physiology. (hide)
EV-METRIC
67% (93rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C
Protein markers
EV: tubulin/ Flotillin1/ syntenin
non-EV: gp96
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Rattus norvegicus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
Primary cortical neurons
EV-harvesting Medium
Serum free medium
Cell number specification
No
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
180
Pelleting: rotor type
TLA-110
Pelleting: speed (g)
300000
Ultra filtration
Cut-off size (kDa)
100
Membrane type
Regenerated cellulose
Characterization: Protein analysis
PMID previous EV protein analysis
Extra characterization
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ syntenin
Not detected EV-associated proteins
tubulin
Not detected contaminants
gp96
PMID previous EV particle analysis
Extra particle analysis
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM/ Cryo-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
99.07+/-69.87
EV concentration
Yes
EV180079 1/2 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C Lucia Paolini 2020 67%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Lucia Paolini, Stefania Federici, Giovanni Consoli, Diletta Arceri, Annalisa Radeghieri, Ivano Alessandri, Paolo Bergese
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Identification of extracellular vesicle (EV) subpopulations remains an open challenge. To date, the (show more...)Identification of extracellular vesicle (EV) subpopulations remains an open challenge. To date, the common strategy is based on searching and probing set of molecular components and physical properties intended to be univocally characteristics of the target subpopulation. Pitfalls include the risk to opt for an unsuitable marker set - which may either not represent the subpopulation or also cover other unintended subpopulations - and the need to use different characterization techniques and equipment. This approach focused on specific markers may result inadequate to routinely deal with EV subpopulations that have an intrinsic high level of heterogeneity. In this paper, we show that Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy can provide a collective fingerprint of EV subpopulations in one single experiment. FT-IR measurements were performed on large (LEVs, ~600 nm), medium (MEVs, ~200 nm) and small (SEVs ~60 nm) EVs enriched from two different cell lines medium: murine prostate cancer (TRAMP-C2) and skin melanoma (B16). Spectral regions between 3100-2800 cm-1 and 1880-900 cm-1, corresponding to functional groups mainly ascribed to lipid and protein contributions, were acquired and processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). LEVs, MEVs and SEVs were separately grouped for both the considered cell lines. Moreover, subpopulations of the same size but from different sources were assigned (with different degrees of accuracy) to two different groups. These findings demonstrate that FT-IR has the potential to quickly fingerprint EV subpopulations as a whole, suggesting an appealing complement/alternative for their characterization and grading, extendable to healthy and pathological EVs and fully artificial nanovesicles. (hide)
EV-METRIC
67% (93rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C
Protein markers
EV: ADAM10/ Annexin V/ Flotillin1/ CD81
non-EV: GM130
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
TRAMP-C2
EV-harvesting Medium
Serum free medium
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
240
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
1
Wash: time (min)
120
Wash: Rotor Type
TLA-55
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Colorimetric Nanoplasmonic Assay
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ Annexin V/ ADAM10/ CD81
Not detected contaminants
GM130
Characterization: Lipid analysis
Yes
EM
EM-type
Atomic force-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
large EVs 570 nm, medium EVS 190 nm, Small EVs 70 nm
EV180079 2/2 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C Lucia Paolini 2020 67%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Lucia Paolini, Stefania Federici, Giovanni Consoli, Diletta Arceri, Annalisa Radeghieri, Ivano Alessandri, Paolo Bergese
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Identification of extracellular vesicle (EV) subpopulations remains an open challenge. To date, the (show more...)Identification of extracellular vesicle (EV) subpopulations remains an open challenge. To date, the common strategy is based on searching and probing set of molecular components and physical properties intended to be univocally characteristics of the target subpopulation. Pitfalls include the risk to opt for an unsuitable marker set - which may either not represent the subpopulation or also cover other unintended subpopulations - and the need to use different characterization techniques and equipment. This approach focused on specific markers may result inadequate to routinely deal with EV subpopulations that have an intrinsic high level of heterogeneity. In this paper, we show that Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy can provide a collective fingerprint of EV subpopulations in one single experiment. FT-IR measurements were performed on large (LEVs, ~600 nm), medium (MEVs, ~200 nm) and small (SEVs ~60 nm) EVs enriched from two different cell lines medium: murine prostate cancer (TRAMP-C2) and skin melanoma (B16). Spectral regions between 3100-2800 cm-1 and 1880-900 cm-1, corresponding to functional groups mainly ascribed to lipid and protein contributions, were acquired and processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). LEVs, MEVs and SEVs were separately grouped for both the considered cell lines. Moreover, subpopulations of the same size but from different sources were assigned (with different degrees of accuracy) to two different groups. These findings demonstrate that FT-IR has the potential to quickly fingerprint EV subpopulations as a whole, suggesting an appealing complement/alternative for their characterization and grading, extendable to healthy and pathological EVs and fully artificial nanovesicles. (hide)
EV-METRIC
67% (93rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C
Protein markers
EV: ADAM10/ Annexin V/ Flotillin1/ CD81
non-EV: GM130
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
B16
EV-harvesting Medium
Serum free medium
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
240
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
1
Wash: time (min)
120
Wash: Rotor Type
TLA-55
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Colorimetric Nanoplasmonic assay
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ Annexin V/ ADAM10/ CD81
Not detected contaminants
GM130
Characterization: Lipid analysis
Yes
EM
EM-type
Atomic force-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
large EVS 690 nm, medium Evs 230 nm, small Evs 50 nm
EV200042 2/2 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant DG
(d)(U)C
DC
Filtration
Laura Bouchareychas 2020 63%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Laura Bouchareychas, Phat Duong, Sergio Covarrubias, Eric Alsop, Tuan Anh Phu, Allen Chung, Michael Gomes, David Wong, Bessie Meechoovet, Allyson Capili, Ryo Yamamoto, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Michael T McManus, Susan Carpenter, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Robert L Raffai
Journal
Cell Rep
Abstract
Developing strategies that promote the resolution of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis remai (show more...)Developing strategies that promote the resolution of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis remains a major therapeutic challenge. Here, we show that exosomes produced by naive bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM-exo) contain anti-inflammatory microRNA-99a/146b/378a that are further increased in exosomes produced by BMDM polarized with IL-4 (BMDM-IL-4-exo). These exosomal microRNAs suppress inflammation by targeting NF-κB and TNF-α signaling and foster M2 polarization in recipient macrophages. Repeated infusions of BMDM-IL-4-exo into Apoe-/- mice fed a Western diet reduce excessive hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and thereby the number of myeloid cells in the circulation and macrophages in aortic root lesions. This also leads to a reduction in necrotic lesion areas that collectively stabilize atheroma. Thus, BMDM-IL-4-exo may represent a useful therapeutic approach for atherosclerosis and other inflammatory disorders by targeting NF-κB and TNF-α via microRNA cargo delivery. (hide)
EV-METRIC
63% (91st percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
genetically modified cell line
Focus vesicles
exosome
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + DC + Filtration
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ Flotillin1
non-EV: Calnexin/ GM130
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.09
Show all info
Study aim
Function/Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
genetically modified cell line
EV-producing cells
Immortalized bone marrow-derived macrophages (iBMDMs)
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
>=18h at >= 100,000g
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Cell number specification
Yes
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
12
Sample volume (mL)
3
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 40 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1080
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
None
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Density cushion
Density medium
Iodixanol
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Fluorometric assay (e.g. Qubit, NanoOrange,...)
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotillin1/ Alix
Not detected contaminants
Calnexin/ GM130
Characterization: RNA analysis
RNAse treatment
Moment of RNAse treatment
After
RNAse type
Other;RNase A/T1 Mix
RNAse concentration
0.4
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
74.58
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
Yes, as number of particles per million cells 2.40E+09
EV200037 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Density gradient
Size-exclusion chromatography (non-commercial)
PEG precipitation
Xiaogang Zhang 2020 63%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Xiaogang Zhang , Ellen G. F. Borg , A. Manuel Liaci , Harmjan R. Vos & Willem Stoorvogel
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membrane encapsulated nanoparticles that can function in intercellul (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membrane encapsulated nanoparticles that can function in intercellular communication, and their presence in biofluids can be indicative for (patho)physiological conditions. Studies aiming to resolve functionalities of EV or to discover EV-associated biomarkers for disease in liquid biopsies are hampered by limitations of current protocols to isolate EV from biofluids or cell culture medium. EV isolation is complicated by the >105-fold numerical excess of other types of particles, including lipoproteins and protein complexes. In addition to persisting contaminants, currently available EV isolation methods may suffer from inefficient EV recovery, bias for EV subtypes, interference with the integrity of EV membranes, and loss of EV functionality. In this study, we established a novel three-step non-selective method to isolate EV from blood or cell culture media with both high yield and purity, resulting in 71% recovery and near to complete elimination of unrelated (lipo)proteins. This EV isolation procedure is independent of ill-defined commercial kits, and apart from an ultracentrifuge, does not require specialised expensive equipment. (hide)
EV-METRIC
63% (91st percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density gradient + Size-exclusion chromatography (non-commercial) + PEG precipitation
Protein markers
EV: CD81/ MHC2/ CD63
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.09-1.13
Show all info
Study aim
New methodological development/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
HLA-DR15+ B cells
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Separation Method
Density gradient
Density medium
Other medium;iohexol
Type
Continuous
Lowest density fraction
0%
Highest density fraction
60%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
4
Sample volume (mL)
2
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 60 Ti
Speed (g)
200000
Duration (min)
960
Fraction volume (mL)
0.3
Fraction processing
Size-exclusion chromatography
Size-exclusion chromatography
Total column volume (mL)
10
Sample volume/column (mL)
0.6
Resin type
Sepharose CL-2B
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ MHC2/ CD81
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV200037 2/2 Homo sapiens Blood plasma Density gradient
Size-exclusion chromatography (non-commercial)
PEG precipitation
Xiaogang Zhang 2020 63%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Xiaogang Zhang , Ellen G. F. Borg , A. Manuel Liaci , Harmjan R. Vos & Willem Stoorvogel
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membrane encapsulated nanoparticles that can function in intercellul (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membrane encapsulated nanoparticles that can function in intercellular communication, and their presence in biofluids can be indicative for (patho)physiological conditions. Studies aiming to resolve functionalities of EV or to discover EV-associated biomarkers for disease in liquid biopsies are hampered by limitations of current protocols to isolate EV from biofluids or cell culture medium. EV isolation is complicated by the >105-fold numerical excess of other types of particles, including lipoproteins and protein complexes. In addition to persisting contaminants, currently available EV isolation methods may suffer from inefficient EV recovery, bias for EV subtypes, interference with the integrity of EV membranes, and loss of EV functionality. In this study, we established a novel three-step non-selective method to isolate EV from blood or cell culture media with both high yield and purity, resulting in 71% recovery and near to complete elimination of unrelated (lipo)proteins. This EV isolation procedure is independent of ill-defined commercial kits, and apart from an ultracentrifuge, does not require specialised expensive equipment. (hide)
EV-METRIC
63% (95th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density gradient + Size-exclusion chromatography (non-commercial) + PEG precipitation
Protein markers
EV: CD81/ CD63/ CD9
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
EV density (g/ml)
1.09-1.13
Show all info
Study aim
New methodological development/Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Density gradient
Density medium
Other medium;iohexol
Type
Continuous
Lowest density fraction
0%
Highest density fraction
60%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
4
Sample volume (mL)
2
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW 60 Ti
Speed (g)
200000
Duration (min)
960
Fraction volume (mL)
0.3
Fraction processing
Size-exclusion chromatography
Size-exclusion chromatography
Total column volume (mL)
10
Sample volume/column (mL)
0.6
Resin type
Sepharose CL-2B
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
microBCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ CD63/ CD81
Proteomics database
Yes:
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM/ Cryo-EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV190050 1/1 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant DG
Filtration
SEC
Size-exclusion chromatography (non-commercial)
Ger J A Arkesteijn 2020 63%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Ger J A Arkesteijn, Estefanía Lozano-Andrés, Sten F W M Libregts, Marca H M Wauben
Journal
Cytometry A
Abstract
Flow cytometry allows multiparameter analysis on a single-cell basis and is currently the method of (show more...) Flow cytometry allows multiparameter analysis on a single-cell basis and is currently the method of choice to rapidly assess heterogeneity of cell populations in suspension. With the research field of extracellular vesicles (EV) rapidly expanding, there is an increased demand to address heterogeneity of EV populations in biological samples. Although flow cytometry would be the ideal technique to do so, the available instruments are in general not equipped to optimally detect the dim light scatter signals generated by submicron-sized particles like EV. Although sideward scatter light and fluorescence are currently used as a threshold signal to identify EV within samples, the forward scatter light (FSC) parameter is often neglected due to the lack of resolution to distinguish EV-related signals from noise. However, after optimization of FSC detection by adjusting the size of the obscuration bar, we recently showed that certain EV-subsets could only be identified based on FSC. This observation made us to further study the possibilities to enhance FSC-detection of submicron-sized particles. By testing differently sized obscuration bars and differently sized pinholes in the focal plane behind the FSC detection lens, we generated a matrix that allowed us to determine which combination resulted in the lowest optical background in terms of numbers of events regarding FSC detection of submicron-sized particles. We found that a combination of an 8-mm obscuration bar and a 200-μm pinhole reduced optical background in a reproducible manner to such extent that it allowed a robust separation of 100-nm polystyrene beads from background signals within the FSC channel, and even allowed thresholding on FSC without the interference of massive background signals when both beads and EV were measured. These technical adaptations thus significantly improved FSC detection of submicron-sized particles and provide an important lead for the further development and design of flow cytometers that aid in detection of submicron-sized particles. © 2020 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. (hide)
EV-METRIC
63% (91st percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
breast tumor model
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + Filtration + SEC + Size-exclusion chromatography (non-commercial)
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ CD63/ CD81/ HSP90/ Alix/ Flotillin1/ Flotillin2/ HSP70/ MHC2/ CD9/ MHC1
non-EV:
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.10-1.12
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
breast tumor model
EV-producing cells
4T1
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
>=18h at >= 100,000g
Cell viability
Yes
Cell viability (%)
Yes
Separation Method
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
5%
Highest density fraction
40%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
16.5
Sample volume (mL)
1
Orientation
Top-down
Rotor type
SW 32.1 Ti
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
1091
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
Size-exclusion chromatography
Filtration steps
0.45µm > x > 0.22µm,
Size-exclusion chromatography
Total column volume (mL)
10
Sample volume/column (mL)
2
Resin type
Sepharose CL-2B
Other
Name other separation method
Size-exclusion chromatography (non-commercial)
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ CD63
Not detected EV-associated proteins
HSP90/ HSP70/ MHC1/ CD81/ Flotillin1/ TSG101/ MHC2/ Flotillin2/ Alix
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
139.8
EV concentration
Yes
EV190032 1/2 Schistosoma mansoni Schisostomula (larval stage) culture supernatant (d)(U)C Marije E Kuipers 2020 57%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Marije E Kuipers, Esther N M Nolte-'t Hoen, Alwin J van der Ham, Arifa Ozir-Fazalalikhan, D Linh Nguyen, Clarize M de Korne, Roman I Koning, John J Tomes, Karl F Hoffmann, Hermelijn H Smits, Cornelis H Hokke
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Helminths like Schistosoma mansoni release excretory/secretory (E/S) products that modulate host imm (show more...)Helminths like Schistosoma mansoni release excretory/secretory (E/S) products that modulate host immunity to enable infection. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are among these E/S products, yet molecular mechanisms and functionality of S. mansoni EV interaction with host immune cells is unknown. Here we demonstrate that EVs released by S. mansoni schistosomula are internalised by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Importantly, we show that this uptake was mainly mediated via DC-SIGN (CD209). Blocking DC-SIGN almost completely abrogated EV uptake, while blocking mannose receptor (MR, CD206) or dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR, CLEC4A) had no effect on EV uptake. Mass spectrometric analysis of EV glycans revealed the presence of surface N-glycans with terminal Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LewisX) motifs, and a wide array of fucosylated lipid-linked glycans, including LewisX, a known ligand for DC-SIGN. Stimulation of moDCs with schistosomula EVs led to increased expression of costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD80 and regulatory surface marker PD-L1. Furthermore, schistosomula EVs increased expression of IL-12 and IL-10 by moDCs, which was partly dependent on the interaction with DC-SIGN. These results provide the first evidence that glycosylation of S. mansoni EVs facilitates the interaction with host immune cells and reveals a role for DC-SIGN and EV-associated glycoconjugates in parasite-induced immune modulation. (hide)
EV-METRIC
57% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Schisostomula (larval stage) culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C
Adj. k-factor
213.2 (pelleting) / 213.2 (washing)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Mechanism of uptake/transfer, Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Schistosoma mansoni
Sample Type
Schisostomula (larval stage) culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 41 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
120000
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
213.2
Wash: time (min)
60
Wash: Rotor Type
SW 41 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
120000
Wash: adjusted k-factor
213.2
Characterization: Protein analysis
PMID previous EV protein analysis
26443722
Extra characterization
Protein Concentration Method
microBCA
Protein Concentration
6
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
30-650
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
23300000000
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM/ Cryo-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
35-190;30-715
EV190032 2/2 Schistosoma mansoni Schisostomula (larval stage) culture supernatant (d)(U)C Marije E Kuipers 2020 57%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Marije E Kuipers, Esther N M Nolte-'t Hoen, Alwin J van der Ham, Arifa Ozir-Fazalalikhan, D Linh Nguyen, Clarize M de Korne, Roman I Koning, John J Tomes, Karl F Hoffmann, Hermelijn H Smits, Cornelis H Hokke
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Helminths like Schistosoma mansoni release excretory/secretory (E/S) products that modulate host imm (show more...)Helminths like Schistosoma mansoni release excretory/secretory (E/S) products that modulate host immunity to enable infection. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are among these E/S products, yet molecular mechanisms and functionality of S. mansoni EV interaction with host immune cells is unknown. Here we demonstrate that EVs released by S. mansoni schistosomula are internalised by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Importantly, we show that this uptake was mainly mediated via DC-SIGN (CD209). Blocking DC-SIGN almost completely abrogated EV uptake, while blocking mannose receptor (MR, CD206) or dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR, CLEC4A) had no effect on EV uptake. Mass spectrometric analysis of EV glycans revealed the presence of surface N-glycans with terminal Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LewisX) motifs, and a wide array of fucosylated lipid-linked glycans, including LewisX, a known ligand for DC-SIGN. Stimulation of moDCs with schistosomula EVs led to increased expression of costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD80 and regulatory surface marker PD-L1. Furthermore, schistosomula EVs increased expression of IL-12 and IL-10 by moDCs, which was partly dependent on the interaction with DC-SIGN. These results provide the first evidence that glycosylation of S. mansoni EVs facilitates the interaction with host immune cells and reveals a role for DC-SIGN and EV-associated glycoconjugates in parasite-induced immune modulation. (hide)
EV-METRIC
57% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Schisostomula (larval stage) culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C
Adj. k-factor
213.2 (pelleting) / 83.21 (washing)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Mechanism of uptake/transfer, Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Schistosoma mansoni
Sample Type
Schisostomula (larval stage) culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
65
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 41 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
120000
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
213.2
Wash: time (min)
65
Wash: Rotor Type
TLS-55
Wash: speed (g)
120000
Wash: adjusted k-factor
83.21
Characterization: Protein analysis
PMID previous EV protein analysis
26443722
Extra characterization
Protein Concentration Method
microBCA
Protein Concentration
6
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Size range/distribution
Reported size (nm)
30-650
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
23300000000
EM
EM-type
Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
Report size (nm)
35-190
EV200080 1/4 Homo sapiens Serum (d)(U)C Gabriella Dobra 2020 56%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Gabriella Dobra, Matyas Bukva, Zoltan Szabo, Bella Bruszel, Maria Harmati, Edina Gyukity-Sebestyen, Adrienn Jenei, Monika Szucs, Peter Horvath, Tamas Biro, Almos Klekner, Krisztina Buzas
Journal
Int J Mol Sci
Abstract
Liquid biopsy-based methods to test biomarkers (e.g., serum proteins and extracellular vesicles) may (show more...)Liquid biopsy-based methods to test biomarkers (e.g., serum proteins and extracellular vesicles) may help to monitor brain tumors. In this proteomics-based study, we aimed to identify a characteristic protein fingerprint associated with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Overall, 96 human serum samples were obtained from four patient groups, namely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), non-small-cell lung cancer brain metastasis (BM), meningioma (M) and lumbar disc hernia patients (CTRL). After the isolation and characterization of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on two different sample types (whole serum and serum sEVs). Statistical analyses (ratio, Cohen's d, receiver operating characteristic; ROC) were carried out to compare patient groups. To recognize differences between the two sample types, pairwise comparisons (Welch's test) and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) were performed. According to our knowledge, this is the first study that compares the proteome of whole serum and serum-derived sEVs. From the 311 proteins identified, 10 whole serum proteins and 17 sEV proteins showed the highest intergroup differences. Sixty-five proteins were significantly enriched in sEV samples, while 129 proteins were significantly depleted compared to whole serum. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) analyses, sEVs are more suitable to discriminate between the patient groups. Our results support that sEVs have greater potential to monitor CNS tumors, than whole serum. (hide)
EV-METRIC
56% (93rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Serum
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
Other / small extracellular vesicles
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD81
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Serum
Sample Condition
Control condition
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Pelleting: rotor type
T-1270
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD81
Proteomics database
No
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
111
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
Yes, as number of particles per milliliter of starting sample 9.29E+10
EM
EM-type
Atomic force-EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV200080 2/4 Homo sapiens Serum (d)(U)C Gabriella Dobra 2020 56%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Gabriella Dobra, Matyas Bukva, Zoltan Szabo, Bella Bruszel, Maria Harmati, Edina Gyukity-Sebestyen, Adrienn Jenei, Monika Szucs, Peter Horvath, Tamas Biro, Almos Klekner, Krisztina Buzas
Journal
Int J Mol Sci
Abstract
Liquid biopsy-based methods to test biomarkers (e.g., serum proteins and extracellular vesicles) may (show more...)Liquid biopsy-based methods to test biomarkers (e.g., serum proteins and extracellular vesicles) may help to monitor brain tumors. In this proteomics-based study, we aimed to identify a characteristic protein fingerprint associated with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Overall, 96 human serum samples were obtained from four patient groups, namely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), non-small-cell lung cancer brain metastasis (BM), meningioma (M) and lumbar disc hernia patients (CTRL). After the isolation and characterization of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed on two different sample types (whole serum and serum sEVs). Statistical analyses (ratio, Cohen's d, receiver operating characteristic; ROC) were carried out to compare patient groups. To recognize differences between the two sample types, pairwise comparisons (Welch's test) and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) were performed. According to our knowledge, this is the first study that compares the proteome of whole serum and serum-derived sEVs. From the 311 proteins identified, 10 whole serum proteins and 17 sEV proteins showed the highest intergroup differences. Sixty-five proteins were significantly enriched in sEV samples, while 129 proteins were significantly depleted compared to whole serum. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) analyses, sEVs are more suitable to discriminate between the patient groups. Our results support that sEVs have greater potential to monitor CNS tumors, than whole serum. (hide)
EV-METRIC
56% (93rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Serum
Sample origin
Glioblastoma multiforme
Focus vesicles
Other / small extracellular vesicles
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD81
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker/Identification of content (omics approaches)
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Serum
Sample Condition
Glioblastoma multiforme
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Pelleting: rotor type
T-1270
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
BCA
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD81
Proteomics database
No
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
108
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
Yes, as number of particles per milliliter of starting sample 8.19E+10
EM
EM-type
Atomic force-EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV200036 5/16 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant DG
(d)(U)C
Commercial method
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora 2020 56%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora, Jose Antonio Rodríguez-Navarro, Ana O'Loghlen
Journal
Cell metab
Abstract
Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, includin (show more...)Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, including cellular senescence. However, there is proof that certain features of aging and senescence can be ameliorated. Here, we provide evidence that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) isolated from primary fibroblasts of young human donors ameliorate certain biomarkers of senescence in cells derived from old and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome donors. Importantly, sEVs from young cells ameliorate senescence in a variety of tissues in old mice. Mechanistically, we identified sEVs to have intrinsic glutathione-S-transferase activity partially due to the high levels of expression of the glutathione-related protein (GSTM2). Transfection of recombinant GSTM2 into sEVs derived from old fibroblasts restores their antioxidant capacity. sEVs increase the levels of reduced glutathione and decrease oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, our data provide an indication of the potential of sEVs as regenerative therapy in aging. (hide)
EV-METRIC
56% (87th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Progeria patients
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + Commercial method
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ GSTM2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.074-1.106
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Progeria patients
EV-producing cells
human skin primary fibroblasts
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >= 100,000g
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
15
Wash: time (min)
80
Wash: Rotor Type
T-865
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
3
Lowest density fraction
10%
Highest density fraction
60%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
5.5
Sample volume (mL)
1.5
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
T-865
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
720
Fraction volume (mL)
0.7
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
15
Pelleting: duration (min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Pelleting-wash: volume per pellet (mL)
15
Pelleting-wash: duration (min)
80
Pelleting-wash: speed (g)
T-865
Commercial kit
qEV
EV-subtype
Distinction between multiple subtypes
Size
Used subtypes
<200 nm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ GSTM2
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
<200
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
Number of particles of starting sample E08-E09
EV200036 7/16 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant DG
(d)(U)C
Commercial method
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora 2020 56%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora, Jose Antonio Rodríguez-Navarro, Ana O'Loghlen
Journal
Cell metab
Abstract
Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, includin (show more...)Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, including cellular senescence. However, there is proof that certain features of aging and senescence can be ameliorated. Here, we provide evidence that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) isolated from primary fibroblasts of young human donors ameliorate certain biomarkers of senescence in cells derived from old and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome donors. Importantly, sEVs from young cells ameliorate senescence in a variety of tissues in old mice. Mechanistically, we identified sEVs to have intrinsic glutathione-S-transferase activity partially due to the high levels of expression of the glutathione-related protein (GSTM2). Transfection of recombinant GSTM2 into sEVs derived from old fibroblasts restores their antioxidant capacity. sEVs increase the levels of reduced glutathione and decrease oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, our data provide an indication of the potential of sEVs as regenerative therapy in aging. (hide)
EV-METRIC
56% (87th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + Commercial method
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ GSTM2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.074-1.106
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
primary human foreskin fibroblasts
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >= 100,000g
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
15
Wash: time (min)
80
Wash: Rotor Type
T-865
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
3
Lowest density fraction
10%
Highest density fraction
60%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
5.5
Sample volume (mL)
1.5
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
T-865
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
720
Fraction volume (mL)
0.7
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
15
Pelleting: duration (min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Pelleting-wash: volume per pellet (mL)
15
Pelleting-wash: duration (min)
80
Pelleting-wash: speed (g)
T-865
Commercial kit
qEV
EV-subtype
Distinction between multiple subtypes
Size
Used subtypes
<200 nm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ GSTM2
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Mean
Reported size (nm)
<200
EV concentration
Yes
Particle yield
Number of particles of starting sample E08-E09
EV200036 9/16 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant DG
(d)(U)C
Commercial method
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora 2020 56%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora, Jose Antonio Rodríguez-Navarro, Ana O'Loghlen
Journal
Cell metab
Abstract
Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, includin (show more...)Aging is a process of cellular and tissue dysfunction characterized by different hallmarks, including cellular senescence. However, there is proof that certain features of aging and senescence can be ameliorated. Here, we provide evidence that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) isolated from primary fibroblasts of young human donors ameliorate certain biomarkers of senescence in cells derived from old and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome donors. Importantly, sEVs from young cells ameliorate senescence in a variety of tissues in old mice. Mechanistically, we identified sEVs to have intrinsic glutathione-S-transferase activity partially due to the high levels of expression of the glutathione-related protein (GSTM2). Transfection of recombinant GSTM2 into sEVs derived from old fibroblasts restores their antioxidant capacity. sEVs increase the levels of reduced glutathione and decrease oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, our data provide an indication of the potential of sEVs as regenerative therapy in aging. (hide)
EV-METRIC
56% (87th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
iRas
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + (d)(U)C + Commercial method
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ GSTM2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.074-1.106
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
iRas
EV-producing cells
primary human foreskin fibroblasts
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >= 100,000g
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
15
Wash: time (min)
80
Wash: Rotor Type
T-865
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
3
Lowest density fraction
10%
Highest density fraction
60%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
5.5
Sample volume (mL)
1.5
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
T-865
Speed (g)
100000
Duration (min)
720
Fraction volume (mL)
0.7
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
15
Pelleting: duration (min)
80
Pelleting: rotor type
T-865
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Pelleting-wash: volume per pellet (mL)
15
Pelleting-wash: duration (min)
80
Pelleting-wash: speed (g)
T-865
Commercial kit
qEV
EV-subtype
Distinction between multiple subtypes
Size
Used subtypes
<200 nm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ GSTM2