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Experiment number
  • If needed, multiple experiments were identified in a single publication based on differing sample types, separation protocols and/or vesicle types of interest.
Species
  • Species of origin of the EVs.
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Details EV-TRACK ID Experiment nr. Species Sample type separation protocol First author Year EV-METRIC
EV130029 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant (d)(U)C Aqil M 2013 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Aqil M, Naqvi AR, Bano AS, Jameel S
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef is an important virulence factor. It associates with cellular membra (show more...)The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef is an important virulence factor. It associates with cellular membranes and modulates the endocytic machinery and signaling pathways. Nef also increases the proliferation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are sites for virus assembly and budding in macrophages. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway proteins Ago2 and GW182 localize to MVBs, suggesting these to be sites for assembly and turnover of the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). While RNAi affects HIV replication, it is not clear if the virus encodes a suppressor activity to overcome this innate host response. Here we show that Nef colocalizes with MVBs and binds Ago2 through two highly conserved Glycine-Tryptophan (GW) motifs, mutations in which abolish Nef binding to Ago2 and reduce virus yield and infectivity. Nef also inhibits the slicing activity of Ago2 and disturbs the sorting of GW182 into exosomes resulting in the suppression of miRNA-induced silencing. Thus, besides its other activities, the HIV-1 Nef protein is also proposed to function as a viral suppressor of RNAi (VSR). (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (61st percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Separation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Separation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Separation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
Separation protocol
Separation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the separation protocol.
    • (d)(U)C = (differential) (ultra)centrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
(d)(U)C
Adj. k-factor
253.9 (pelleting) / 253.9 (washing)
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD81/ Beta-actin/ TSG101/ GAPDH
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Other/HIV-1 accessory protein function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Separation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Obtain an EV pellet :
Yes
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
SW28
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
253.9
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
30
Wash: Rotor Type
SW28
Wash: adjusted k-factor
253.9
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD81/ TSG101/ GAPDH/ Beta-actin
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
GAPDH/ Beta-actin
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