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Experiment number
  • If needed, multiple experiments were identified in a single publication based on differing sample types, isolation protocols and/or vesicle types of interest.
Species
  • Species of origin of the EVs.
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  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
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Details EV-TRACK ID Experiment nr. Species Sample type Isolation protocol First author Year EV-METRIC
EV140020 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Ahmed W 2014 44%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Ahmed W, Philip PS, Tariq S, Khan G
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with a number of human malignancies (show more...)Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with a number of human malignancies of epithelial and lymphoid origin. However, the mechanism of oncogenesis is unclear. A number of viral products, including EBV latent proteins and non-protein coding RNAs have been implicated. Recently it was reported that EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are released from EBV infected cells and they can induce biological changes in cells via signaling from toll-like receptor 3. Here, we investigated if these abundantly expressed non-protein coding EBV RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2) are excreted from infected cells in exosomal fractions. Using differential ultracentrifugation we isolated exosomes from three EBV positive cell lines (B95-8, EBV-LCL, BL30-B95-8), one EBER-1 transfected cell line (293T-pHEBo-E1) and two EBV-negative cell lines (BL30, 293T-pHEBo). The identity of purified exosomes was determined by electron microscopy and western blotting for CD63. The presence of EBERs in cells, culture supernatants and purified exosomal fractions was determined using RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Purified exosomal fractions were also tested for the presence of the EBER-1-binding protein La, using western blotting. Both EBER-1 and EBER-2 were found to be present not only in the culture supernatants, but also in the purified exosome fractions of all EBV-infected cell lines. EBER-1 could also be detected in exosomal fractions from EBER-1 transfected 293T cells whilst the fractions from vector only transfectants were clearly negative. Furthermore, purified exosomal fractions also contained the EBER-binding protein (La), supporting the notion that EBERs are most probably released from EBV infected cells in the form of EBER-La complex in exosomes. (hide)
EV-METRIC
44% (82nd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
256 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: CD63
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Pelleting: rotor type
SW32
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
256.0
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140130 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Fong MY 2014 43%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Fong MY, Zhou W, Liu L, Alontaga AY, Chandra M, Ashby J, Chow A, O'Connor ST, Li S, Chin AR, Somlo G, Palomares M, Li Z, Tremblay JR, Tsuyada A, Sun G, Reid MA, Wu X, Swiderski P, Ren X, Shi Y, Kong M, Zhong W, Chen Y, Wang SE
Journal
Nat Cell Biol
Abstract
Reprogrammed glucose metabolism as a result of increased glycolysis and glucose uptake is a hallmark (show more...)Reprogrammed glucose metabolism as a result of increased glycolysis and glucose uptake is a hallmark of cancer. Here we show that cancer cells can suppress glucose uptake by non-tumour cells in the premetastatic niche, by secreting vesicles that carry high levels of the miR-122 microRNA. High miR-122 levels in the circulation have been associated with metastasis in breast cancer patients, and we show that cancer-cell-secreted miR-122 facilitates metastasis by increasing nutrient availability in the premetastatic niche. Mechanistically, cancer-cell-derived miR-122 suppresses glucose uptake by niche cells in vitro and in vivo by downregulating the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase. In vivo inhibition of miR-122 restores glucose uptake in distant organs, including brain and lungs, and decreases the incidence of metastasis. These results demonstrate that, by modifying glucose utilization by recipient premetastatic niche cells, cancer-derived extracellular miR-122 is able to reprogram systemic energy metabolism to facilitate disease progression. (hide)
EV-METRIC
43% (77th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
TEM measurements
73.09
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Density gradient
Only used for validation of main results
1
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
0.25
Highest density fraction
2.5
Orientation
Top-down
Characterization: Particle analysis
Particle analysis: flow cytometry
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140051 1/1 Cryptococcus neoformans Cell culture supernatant 0.45 µm filter
dUC
UF
Wolf JM 2014 43%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Wolf JM, Espadas-Moreno J, Luque-Garcia JL, Casadevall A
Journal
Eukaryot Cell
Abstract
Cryptococcus neoformans produces extracellular vesicles containing a variety of cargo, including vir (show more...)Cryptococcus neoformans produces extracellular vesicles containing a variety of cargo, including virulence factors. To become extracellular, these vesicles not only must be released from the plasma membrane but also must pass through the dense matrix of the cell wall. The greatest unknown in the area of fungal vesicles is the mechanism by which these vesicles are released to the extracellular space given the presence of the fungal cell wall. Here we used electron microscopy techniques to image the interactions of vesicles with the cell wall. Our goal was to define the ultrastructural morphology of the process to gain insights into the mechanisms involved. We describe single and multiple vesicle-leaving events, which we hypothesized were due to plasma membrane and multivesicular body vesicle origins, respectively. We further utilized melanized cells to trap vesicles and visualize those passing through the cell wall. Vesicle size differed depending on whether vesicles left the cytoplasm in single versus multiple release events. Furthermore, we analyzed different vesicle populations for vesicle dimensions and protein composition. Proteomic analysis tripled the number of proteins known to be associated with vesicles. Despite separation of vesicles into batches differing in size, we did not identify major differences in protein composition. In summary, our results indicate that vesicles are generated by more than one mechanism, that vesicles exit the cell by traversing the cell wall, and that vesicle populations exist as a continuum with regard to size and protein composition. (hide)
EV-METRIC
43% (77th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.45 µm filter + dUC + UF
Protein markers
EV: Urease/ Phosphatase/ Laccase
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Biogenesis/Sorting
Sample
Species
Cryptococcus neoformans
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Filtration steps
0.45µm > x > 0.22µm,
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Urease/ Phosphatase/ Laccase
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Urease/ Phosphatase/ Laccase
Characterization: Particle analysis
DLS
EM
EM-type
transmission EM/ cryo EM/ scanning EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140286 1/4 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Hutcheson JD 2014 43%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Hutcheson JD, Goettsch C, Pham T, Iwashita M, Aikawa M, Singh SA, Aikawa E
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Calcifying extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cells within atherosclerotic plaques have rece (show more...)Calcifying extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cells within atherosclerotic plaques have received increased attention for their role in mediating vascular calcification, a major predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the difference between this pathologic vesicle population and other EVs that contribute to physiological cellular processes. One major challenge that hinders research into these differences is the inability to selectively isolate calcifying EVs from other vesicle populations. In this study, we hypothesized that the formation of mineral within calcifying EVs would increase the density of the vesicles such that they would pellet at a faster rate during ultracentrifugation. We show that after 10 min of ultracentrifugation at 100,000×g, calcifying EVs are depleted from the conditioned media of calcifying coronary artery smooth muscle cells and are enriched in the pelleted portion. We utilized mass spectrometry to establish functional proteomic differences between the calcifying EVs enriched in the 10 min ultracentrifugation compared to other vesicle populations preferentially pelleted by longer ultracentrifugation times. The procedures established in this study will allow us to enrich the vesicle population of interest and perform advanced proteomic analyses to find subtle differences between calcifying EVs and other vesicle populations that may be translated into therapeutic targets for vascular calcification. Finally, we will show that the differences in ultracentrifugation times required to pellet the vesicle populations can also be used to estimate physical differences between the vesicles. (hide)
EV-METRIC
43% (77th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
41.45 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
10
Pelleting: rotor type
TLA120.2
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
41.45
Characterization: Protein analysis
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV140286 2/4 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Hutcheson JD 2014 43%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Hutcheson JD, Goettsch C, Pham T, Iwashita M, Aikawa M, Singh SA, Aikawa E
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Calcifying extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cells within atherosclerotic plaques have rece (show more...)Calcifying extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cells within atherosclerotic plaques have received increased attention for their role in mediating vascular calcification, a major predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the difference between this pathologic vesicle population and other EVs that contribute to physiological cellular processes. One major challenge that hinders research into these differences is the inability to selectively isolate calcifying EVs from other vesicle populations. In this study, we hypothesized that the formation of mineral within calcifying EVs would increase the density of the vesicles such that they would pellet at a faster rate during ultracentrifugation. We show that after 10 min of ultracentrifugation at 100,000×g, calcifying EVs are depleted from the conditioned media of calcifying coronary artery smooth muscle cells and are enriched in the pelleted portion. We utilized mass spectrometry to establish functional proteomic differences between the calcifying EVs enriched in the 10 min ultracentrifugation compared to other vesicle populations preferentially pelleted by longer ultracentrifugation times. The procedures established in this study will allow us to enrich the vesicle population of interest and perform advanced proteomic analyses to find subtle differences between calcifying EVs and other vesicle populations that may be translated into therapeutic targets for vascular calcification. Finally, we will show that the differences in ultracentrifugation times required to pellet the vesicle populations can also be used to estimate physical differences between the vesicles. (hide)
EV-METRIC
43% (77th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
41.45 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
20
Pelleting: rotor type
TLA120.2
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
41.45
Characterization: Protein analysis
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV140100 1/1 Homo sapiens Milk 0.2 µm filter
0.45 µm
0.8 µm
dUC
Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Torregrosa Paredes P 2014 43%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Torregrosa Paredes P, Gutzeit C, Johansson S, Admyre C, Stenius F, Alm J, Scheynius A, Gabrielsson S
Journal
Allergy
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Breast-feeding has many beneficial effects on the developing immune system of the newbor (show more...)BACKGROUND: Breast-feeding has many beneficial effects on the developing immune system of the newborn. Breast milk contains immunoregulatory factors, such as nano-sized vesicles named exosomes. This study aimed at characterizing breast milk exosomes from human early milk and mature milk and to investigate whether allergic sensitization and an anthroposophic lifestyle could influence the exosome profile. METHODS: Breast milk was collected from 22 mothers at day 3-8 and from 61 mothers at 2 months postpartum, all part of the ALADDIN birth cohort. Isolated exosomes were captured on anti-MHC-class II- or anti-CD63 beads and analyzed by flow cytometry. Exosomal phenotype was related to lifestyle and allergic sensitization of the mothers, and sensitization of the child at 2 years of age. RESULTS: We found a higher content of exosomes in early milk compared with mature milk. Early milk exosomes were enriched in HLA-DR molecules and displayed significantly lower levels of HLA-ABC compared with those in mature milk. Phenotypically different subpopulations of exosomes were found in mature milk. Significantly lower levels of MUC1 were detected on CD63-enriched exosomes from sensitized mothers compared with nonsensitized. Furthermore, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had significantly lower MUC1 expression on their HLA-DR-enriched milk exosomes and up-regulated levels of CD63 on CD63-enriched exosomes compared with nonanthroposophic mothers. Notably, mothers whose children developed sensitization had an increased amount of HLA-ABC on their milk exosomes enriched for CD63. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of exosomes in breast milk varies with maternal sensitization and lifestyle, which might influence allergy development in the child. (hide)
EV-METRIC
43% (81st percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Milk
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + 0.45 µm + 0.8 µm + dUC + Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81/ MHC2/ CD36/ MUC1/ MHC2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.12-1.18
Show all info
Study aim
Biogenesis/Sorting
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Milk
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Density gradient
Only used for validation of main results
1
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
0.25
Highest density fraction
2
Orientation
Top-down
Speed (g)
200000
Filtration steps
> 0.45 µm, 0.45µm > x > 0.22µm, 0.22µm or 0.2µm
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
MHC2/ CD36/ MUC1/ MHC2
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
MHC2/ CD36/ MUC1/ MHC2
Flow cytometry specific beads
Selected surface protein(s)
Yes
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Particle analysis: flow cytometry
EV140124 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Ramteke A 2014 43%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Ramteke A, Ting H, Agarwal C, Mateen S, Somasagara R, Hussain A, Graner M, Frederick B, Agarwal R, Deep G
Journal
Mol Carcinog
Abstract
Hypoxic conditions in prostate cancer (PCA) are associated with poor prognosis; however, precise mec (show more...)Hypoxic conditions in prostate cancer (PCA) are associated with poor prognosis; however, precise mechanism/s through which hypoxia promotes malignant phenotype remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the role of exosomes from hypoxic PCA cells in enhancing the invasiveness and stemness of naïve PCA cells, as well as in promoting cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) phenotype in prostate stromal cells (PrSC). Human PCA LNCaP and PC3 cells were exposed to hypoxic (1% O2 ) or normoxic (21% O2 ) conditions, and exosomes secreted under hypoxic (Exo(Hypoxic) ) and normoxic (Exo(Normoxic) ) conditions were isolated from conditioned media. Nanoparticle tracking analysis revealed that Exo(Hypoxic) have smaller average size as compared to Exo(Normoxic) . Immunoblotting results showed a higher level of tetraspanins (CD63 and CD81), heat shock proteins (HSP90 and HSP70), and Annexin II in Exo(Hypoxic) compared to Exo(Normoxic) . Co-culturing with Exo(Hypoxic) increased the invasiveness and motility of naïve LNCaP and PC3 cells, respectively. Exo(Hypoxic) also promoted prostasphere formation by both LNCaP and PC3 cells, and enhanced ?-SMA (a CAF biomarker) expression in PrSC. Compared to Exo(Normoxic) , Exo(Hypoxic) showed higher metalloproteinases activity and increased level of diverse signaling molecules (TGF-?2, TNF1?, IL6, TSG101, Akt, ILK1, and ?-catenin). Furthermore, proteome analysis revealed a higher number of proteins in Exo(Hypoxic) (160 proteins) compared to Exo(Normoxic) (62 proteins), primarily associated with the remodeling of epithelial adherens junction pathway. Importantly, Exo(Hypoxic) targeted the expression of adherens junction proteins in naïve PC3 cells. These findings suggest that Exo(Hypoxic) are loaded with unique proteins that could enhance invasiveness, stemness, and induce microenvironment changes; thereby, promoting PCA aggressiveness. (hide)
EV-METRIC
43% (77th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
203.6 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: rotor type
70.1Ti
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
203.6
Characterization: Protein analysis
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV140080 1/2 Homo sapiens Urine dUC
Sucrose-DG
Hogan MC 2014 43%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Hogan MC, Bakeberg JL, Gainullin VG, Irazabal MV, Harmon AJ, Lieske JC, Charlesworth MC, Johnson KL, Madden BJ, Zenka RM, McCormick DJ, Sundsbak JL, Heyer CM, Torres VE, Harris PC, Ward CJ
Journal
J Am Soc Nephrol
Abstract
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common cause of ESRD. Affected individuals (show more...)Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common cause of ESRD. Affected individuals inherit a defective copy of either PKD1 or PKD2, which encode polycystin-1 (PC1) or polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively. PC1 and PC2 are secreted on urinary exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) (100-nm diameter vesicles), in which PC1 is present in a cleaved form and may be complexed with PC2. Here, label-free quantitative proteomic studies of urine ELVs in an initial discovery cohort (13 individuals with PKD1 mutations and 18 normal controls) revealed that of 2008 ELV proteins, 9 (0.32%) were expressed at significantly different levels in samples from individuals with PKD1 mutations compared to controls (P<0.03). In samples from individuals with PKD1 mutations, levels of PC1 and PC2 were reduced to 54% (P<0.02) and 53% (P<0.001), respectively. Transmembrane protein 2 (TMEM2), a protein with homology to fibrocystin, was 2.1-fold higher in individuals with PKD1 mutations (P<0.03). The PC1/TMEM2 ratio correlated inversely with height-adjusted total kidney volume in the discovery cohort, and the ratio of PC1/TMEM2 or PC2/TMEM2 could be used to distinguish individuals with PKD1 mutations from controls in a confirmation cohort. In summary, results of this study suggest that a test measuring the urine exosomal PC1/TMEM2 or PC2/TMEM2 ratio may have utility in diagnosis and monitoring of polycystic kidney disease. Future studies will focus on increasing sample size and confirming these studies. The data were deposited in the ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD001075). (hide)
EV-METRIC
43% (82nd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Sucrose-DG
Adj. k-factor
168.7 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.046-1.064
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Equal to or above 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Pelleting: rotor type
T647.5
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
168.7
Density gradient
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
5
Highest density fraction
30
Orientation
Top-down
Rotor type
Surespin
Speed (g)
200000
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140266 3/6 Homo sapiens Blood plasma dUC Chevillet JR 2014 43%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Chevillet JR, Kang Q, Ruf IK, Briggs HA, Vojtech LN, Hughes SM, Cheng HH, Arroyo JD, Meredith EK, Gallichotte EN, Pogosova-Agadjanyan EL, Morrissey C, Stirewalt DL, Hladik F, Yu EY, Higano CS, Tewari M
Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Abstract
Exosomes have been proposed as vehicles for microRNA (miRNA) -based intercellular communication and (show more...)Exosomes have been proposed as vehicles for microRNA (miRNA) -based intercellular communication and a source of miRNA biomarkers in bodily fluids. Although exosome preparations contain miRNAs, a quantitative analysis of their abundance and stoichiometry is lacking. In the course of studying cancer-associated extracellular miRNAs in patient blood samples, we found that exosome fractions contained a small minority of the miRNA content of plasma. This low yield prompted us to perform a more quantitative assessment of the relationship between miRNAs and exosomes using a stoichiometric approach. We quantified both the number of exosomes and the number of miRNA molecules in replicate samples that were isolated from five diverse sources (i.e., plasma, seminal fluid, dendritic cells, mast cells, and ovarian cancer cells). Regardless of the source, on average, there was far less than one molecule of a given miRNA per exosome, even for the most abundant miRNAs in exosome preparations (mean ± SD across six exosome sources: 0.00825 ± 0.02 miRNA molecules/exosome). Thus, if miRNAs were distributed homogenously across the exosome population, on average, over 100 exosomes would need to be examined to observe one copy of a given abundant miRNA. This stoichiometry of miRNAs and exosomes suggests that most individual exosomes in standard preparations do not carry biologically significant numbers of miRNAs and are, therefore, individually unlikely to be functional as vehicles for miRNA-based communication. We propose revised models to reconcile the exosome-mediated, miRNA-based intercellular communication hypothesis with the observed stoichiometry of miRNAs associated with exosomes. (hide)
EV-METRIC
43% (87th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
115.5 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biogenesis/Sorting
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Pelleting: rotor type
SW55
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
115.5
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140135 1/1 Dicrocoelium dendriticum Parasite 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Bernal D 2014 43%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Bernal D, Trelis M, Montaner S, Cantalapiedra F, Galiano A, Hackenberg M, Marcilla A
Journal
J Proteomics
Abstract
With the aim of characterizing the molecules involved in the interaction of Dicrocoelium dendriticum (show more...)With the aim of characterizing the molecules involved in the interaction of Dicrocoelium dendriticum adults and the host, we have performed proteomic analyses of the external surface of the parasite using the currently available datasets including the transcriptome of the related species Echinostoma caproni. We have identified 182 parasite proteins on the outermost surface of D. dendriticum. The presence of exosome-like vesicles in the ESP of D. dendriticum and their components has also been characterized. Using proteomic approaches, we have characterized 84 proteins in these vesicles. Interestingly, we have detected miRNA in D. dendriticum exosomes, thus representing the first report of miRNA in helminth exosomes.BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In order to identify potential targets for intervention against parasitic helminths, we have analyzed the surface of the parasitic helminth Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Along with the proteomic analyses of the outermost layer of the parasite, our work describes the molecular characterization of the exosomes of D. dendriticum. Our proteomic data confirm the improvement of protein identification from non-model organisms like helminths, when using different search engines against a combination of available databases. In addition, this work represents the first report of miRNAs in parasitic helminth exosomes. These vesicles can pack specific proteins and RNAs providing stability and resistance to RNAse digestion in body fluids, and provide a way to regulate host-parasite interplay. The present data should provide a solid foundation for the development of novel methods to control this non-model organism and related parasites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. (hide)
EV-METRIC
43% (60th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Parasite
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Adj. k-factor
74.34 (pelleting) / 74.34 (washing)
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Dicrocoelium dendriticum
Sample Type
Parasite
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
TLA55
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
74.34
Wash: Rotor Type
TLA55
Wash: adjusted k-factor
74.34
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140120 5/7 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
Vn peptides
Ghosh A 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Ghosh A, Davey M, Chute IC, Griffiths SG, Lewis S, Chacko S, Barnett D, Crapoulet N, Fournier S, Joy A, Caissie MC, Ferguson AD, Daigle M, Meli MV, Lewis SM, Ouellette RJ
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Recent studies indicate that extracellular vesicles are an important source material for many clinic (show more...)Recent studies indicate that extracellular vesicles are an important source material for many clinical applications, including minimally-invasive disease diagnosis. However, challenges for rapid and simple extracellular vesicle collection have hindered their application. We have developed and validated a novel class of peptides (which we named venceremin, or Vn) that exhibit nucleotide-independent specific affinity for canonical heat shock proteins. The Vn peptides were validated to specifically and efficiently capture HSP-containing extracellular vesicles from cell culture growth media, plasma, and urine by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, sequencing of nucleic acid cargo, proteomic profiling, immunoblotting, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. All of these analyses confirmed the material captured by the Vn peptides was comparable to those purified by the standard ultracentrifugation method. We show that the Vn peptides are a useful tool for the rapid isolation of extracellular vesicles using standard laboratory equipment. Moreover, the Vn peptides are adaptable to diverse platforms and therefore represent an excellent solution to the challenge of extracellular vesicle isolation for research and clinical applications. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (75th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + Vn peptides
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ HSP90/ HSP70/ GAPDH
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Other
Name other isolation method
Vn peptides
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ HSP90/ HSP70/ GAPDH
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
GAPDH
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140104 2/3 Homo sapiens Milk Density cushion
Sucrose-DG
Zonneveld MI 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zonneveld MI, Brisson AR, van Herwijnen MJ, Tan S, van de Lest CH, Redegeld FA, Garssen J, Wauben MH, Nolte-'t Hoen EN
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an importan (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at -80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (72nd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Milk
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density cushion + Sucrose-DG
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD9
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.12-1.28
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Milk
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
0.4
Highest density fraction
2.5
Orientation
Bottom-up
Rotor type
SW60
Speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD9
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140103 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Density cushion
Iodixanol-DG
UF
Yoon YJ 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Yoon YJ, Kim DK, Yoon CM, Park J, Kim YK, Roh TY, Gho YS
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Various mammalian cells, including cancer cells, shed extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as ex (show more...)Various mammalian cells, including cancer cells, shed extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as exosomes and microvesicles, into surrounding tissues. These EVs play roles in tumor growth and metastasis by promoting angiogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism of how cancer-derived EVs elicit endothelial cell activation remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that early growth response-1 (Egr-1) activation in endothelial cells is involved in the angiogenic activity of colorectal cancer cell-derived EVs. Both RNA interference-mediated downregulation of Egr-1 and ERK1/2 or JNK inhibitor significantly blocked EV-mediated Egr-1 activation and endothelial cell migration. Furthermore, lipid raft-mediated endocytosis inhibitor effectively blocked endothelial Egr-1 activation and migration induced by cancer-derived EVs. Our results suggest that Egr-1 activation in endothelial cells may be a key mechanism involved in the angiogenic activity of cancer-derived EVs. These findings will improve our understanding regarding the proangiogenic activities of EVs in diverse pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (75th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density cushion + Iodixanol-DG + UF
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.098
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Lowest density fraction
5
Highest density fraction
30
Orientation
Bottom-up
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD81
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140127 2/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Density cushion Webber JP 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Webber JP, Spary LK, Sanders AJ, Chowdhury R, Jiang WG, Steadman R, Wymant J, Jones AT, Kynaston H, Mason MD, Tabi Z, Clayton A
Journal
Oncogene
Abstract
Activation of myofibroblast rich stroma is a rate-limiting step essential for cancer progression. Th (show more...)Activation of myofibroblast rich stroma is a rate-limiting step essential for cancer progression. The responsible factors are not fully understood, but TGF?1 is probably critical. A proportion of TGF?1 is associated with extracellular nano-vesicles termed exosomes, secreted by carcinoma cells, and the relative importance of soluble and vesicular TGF? in stromal activation is presented. Prostate cancer exosomes triggered TGF?1-dependent fibroblast differentiation, to a distinctive myofibroblast phenotype resembling stromal cells isolated from cancerous prostate tissue; supporting angiogenesis in vitro and accelerating tumour growth in vivo. Myofibroblasts generated using soluble TGF?1 were not pro-angiogenic or tumour-promoting. Cleaving heparan sulphate side chains from the exosome surface had no impact on TGF? levels yet attenuated SMAD-dependent signalling and myofibroblastic differentiation. Eliminating exosomes from the cancer cell secretome, targeting Rab27a, abolished differentiation and lead to failure in stroma-assisted tumour growth in vivo. Exosomal TGF?1 is therefore required for the formation of tumour-promoting stroma. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (75th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density cushion
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ TSG101/ MHC1
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ TSG101/ MHC1
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ TSG101/ MHC1
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV140045 2/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
Sucrose-DG
Webber J 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Webber J, Stone TC, Katilius E, Smith BC, Gordon B, Mason MD, Tabi Z, Brewis IA, Clayton A
Journal
Mol Cell Proteomics
Abstract
We have used a novel affinity-based proteomics technology to examine the protein signature of small (show more...)We have used a novel affinity-based proteomics technology to examine the protein signature of small secreted extracellular vesicles called exosomes. The technology uses a new class of protein binding reagents called SOMAmers® (slow off-rate modified aptamers) and allows the simultaneous precise measurement of over 1000 proteins. Exosomes were highly purified from the Du145 prostate cancer cell line, by pooling selected fractions from a continuous sucrose gradient (within the density range of 1.1 to 1.2 g/ml), and examined under standard conditions or with additional detergent treatment by the SOMAscan™ array (version 3.0). Lysates of Du145 cells were also prepared, and the profiles were compared. Housekeeping proteins such as cyclophilin-A, LDH, and Hsp70 were present in exosomes, and we identified almost 100 proteins that were enriched in exosomes relative to cells. These included proteins of known association with cancer exosomes such as MFG-E8, integrins, and MET, and also those less widely reported as exosomally associated, such as ROR1 and ITIH4. Several proteins with no previously known exosomal association were confirmed as exosomally expressed in experiments using individual SOMAmer® reagents or antibodies in micro-plate assays. Western blotting confirmed the SOMAscan™-identified enrichment of exosomal NOTCH-3, L1CAM, RAC1, and ADAM9. In conclusion, we describe here over 300 proteins of hitherto unknown association with prostate cancer exosomes and suggest that the SOMAmer®-based assay technology is an effective proteomics platform for exosome-associated biomarker discovery in diverse clinical settings. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (75th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Sucrose-DG
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ PSMA/ MHC1
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
EV density (g/ml)
1.12-1.17
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Density gradient
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
0.2
Highest density fraction
2.5
Orientation
Top-down
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
PSMA/ MHC1
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ PSMA/ MHC1
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EV140040 1/1 Homo sapiens Endometriomas and simple cysts fluid Commercial Texidó L 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Texidó L, Romero C, Vidal A, García-Valero J, Fernández Montoli ME, Baixeras N, Condom E, Ponce J, García-Tejedor A, Martín-Satué M
Journal
Mediators Inflamm
Abstract
Endometriosis, defined as the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is a common gynecolog (show more...)Endometriosis, defined as the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is a common gynecologic condition affecting millions of women worldwide. It is an inflammatory, estrogen-dependent complex disorder, with broad symptomatic variability, pelvic pain, and infertility being the main characteristics. Ovarian endometriomas are frequently developed in women with endometriosis. Late diagnosis is one of the main problems of endometriosis; thus, it is important to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the ecto-nucleotidases activities in the contents of endometriomas. These enzymes, through the regulation of extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, are key enzymes in inflammatory processes, and their expression has been previously characterized in human endometrium. To achieve our objective, the echo-guided aspirated fluids of endometriomas were analyzed by evaluating the ecto-nucleotidases activities and compared with simple cysts. Our results show that enzyme activities are quantifiable in the ovarian cysts aspirates and that endometriomas show significantly higher ecto-nucleotidases activities than simple cysts (5.5-fold increase for ATPase and 20-fold for ADPase), thus being possible candidates for new endometriosis biomarkers. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of ecto-nucleotidases bearing exosomes in these fluids. These results add up to the knowledge of the physiopathologic mechanisms underlying endometriosis and, open up a promising new field of study. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Endometriomas and simple cysts fluid
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Commercial
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ HSP70/ CD39/ CD73
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Endometriomas and simple cysts fluid
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Commercial kit
ExoQuick
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ HSP70/ CD39/ CD73
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD39/ CD73
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV140125 1/2 Homo sapiens Blood plasma Immunoaffinity Shi M 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Shi M, Liu C, Cook TJ, Bullock KM, Zhao Y, Ginghina C, Li Y, Aro P, Dator R, He C, Hipp MJ, Zabetian CP, Peskind ER, Hu SC, Quinn JF, Galasko DR, Banks WA, Zhang J
Journal
Acta Neuropathol
Abstract
Extracellular ?-synuclein is important in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and also as a (show more...)Extracellular ?-synuclein is important in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and also as a potential biomarker when tested in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of blood plasma or serum ?-synuclein as a biomarker has been found to be inconsistent and generally ineffective, largely due to the contribution of peripherally derived ?-synuclein. In this study, we discovered, via an intracerebroventricular injection of radiolabeled ?-synuclein into mouse brain, that CSF ?-synuclein was readily transported to blood, with a small portion being contained in exosomes that are relatively specific to the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, we developed a technique to evaluate the levels of ?-synuclein in these exosomes in individual plasma samples. When applied to a large cohort of clinical samples (267 PD, 215 controls), we found that in contrast to CSF ?-synuclein concentrations, which are consistently reported to be lower in PD patients compared to controls, the levels of plasma exosomal ?-synuclein were substantially higher in PD patients, suggesting an increased efflux of the protein to the peripheral blood of these patients. Furthermore, although no association was observed between plasma exosomal and CSF ?-synuclein, a significant correlation between plasma exosomal ?-synuclein and disease severity (r = 0.176, p = 0.004) was observed, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity achieved by plasma exosomal ?-synuclein were comparable to those determined by CSF ?-synuclein. Further studies are clearly needed to elucidate the mechanism involved in the transport of CNS ?-synuclein to the periphery, which may lead to a more convenient and robust assessment of PD clinically. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (83rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Immunoaffinity
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ L1CAM/ Alpha-synuclein
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ L1CAM/ Alpha-synuclein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ L1CAM/ Alpha-synuclein
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM/ immune EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140037 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Commercial
Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Oksvold MP 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Oksvold MP, Kullmann A, Forfang L, Kierulf B, Li M, Brech A, Vlassov AV, Smeland EB, Neurauter A, Pedersen KW
Journal
Clin Ther
Abstract
PURPOSE: Exosomes are small (30- to 100-nm) vesicles secreted by all cell types in culture and found (show more...)PURPOSE: Exosomes are small (30- to 100-nm) vesicles secreted by all cell types in culture and found in most body fluids. A mean of 1 mL of blood serum, derived from healthy donors, contains approximately 10(12) exosomes. Depending on the disease, the number of exosomes can fluctuate. Concentration of exosomes in the bloodstream and all other body fluids is extremely high. Several B-cell surface antigens (CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD24, CD37, CD40, and HLA-DR) and the common leukocyte antigen CD45 are interesting in terms of immunotherapy of hematologic malignant neoplasms. The established standard for exosome isolation is ultracentrifugation. However, this method cannot discriminate between exosome subpopulations and other nanovesicles. The main purpose of this study was to characterize CD81(+) and CD63(+) subpopulations of exosomes in terms of these surface markers after release from various types of B-cell lymphoma cell lines using an easy and reliable method of immunomagnetic separation. METHODS: Western blotting, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy were used to compare the total preenriched extracellular vesicle (EV) pool to each fraction of vesicles after specific isolation, using magnetic beads conjugated with antibodies raised against the exosome markers CD63 and CD81. FINDINGS: Magnetic bead-based isolation is a convenient method to study and compare subpopulations of exosomes released from B-cell lymphoma cells. The data indicated that the specifically isolated vesicles differed from the total preenriched EV pool. CD19, CD20, CD24, CD37, and HLA-DR, but not CD22, CD23, CD40, and CD45, are expressed on exosomes from B-cell lymphoma cell lines with large heterogeneity among the different B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Interestingly, these B-cell lymphoma-derived EVs are able to rescue lymphoma cells from rituximab-induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity. IMPLICATIONS: Distribution of exosomes that contain CD19, CD20, CD24, CD37, and HLA-DR may intercept immunotherapy directed against these antigens, which is important to be aware of for optimal treatment. The use of an immunomagnetic separation platform enables easy isolation and characterization of exosome subpopulations for further studies of the exosome biology to understand the potential for therapeutic and diagnostic use. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (75th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Commercial + Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ MHC2
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Commercial kit
Total Exosome Isolation
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ MHC2
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
MHC2
Flow cytometry specific beads
Selected surface protein(s)
Yes
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Particle analysis: flow cytometry
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140034 1/1 Homo sapiens Serum 0.2 µm filter
Commercial
Manterola L 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Manterola L, Guruceaga E, Gállego Pérez-Larraya J, González-Huarriz M, Jauregui P, Tejada S, Diez-Valle R, Segura V, Samprón N, Barrena C, Ruiz I, Agirre A, Ayuso A, Rodríguez J, González A, Xipell E, Matheu A, López de Munain A, Tuñón T, Zazpe I, García-Foncillas J, Paris S, Delattre JY, Alonso MM
Journal
Neuro Oncol
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and (show more...)BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. METHODS: To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. RESULTS: We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (92nd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Serum
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + Commercial
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD9/ TSG101/ LAMP1
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Serum
Isolation Method
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Commercial kit
ExoQuick
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD9/ TSG101/ LAMP1
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1
Characterization: Particle analysis
DLS
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV140193 2/3 Homo sapiens Semen Commercial
Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Madison MN 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Madison MN, Roller RJ, Okeoma CM
Journal
Retrovirology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles secreted into the extracellular milieu by diverse c (show more...)BACKGROUND: Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles secreted into the extracellular milieu by diverse cell types. Exosomes facilitate intercellular communication, modulate cellular pheno/genotype, and regulate microbial pathogenesis. Although human semen contains exosomes, their role in regulating infection with viruses that are sexually transmitted remains unknown. In this study, we used semen exosomes purified from healthy human donors to evaluate the role of exosomes on the infectivity of different strains of HIV-1 in a variety of cell lines. RESULTS: We show that human semen contains a heterologous population of exosomes, enriched in mRNA encoding tetraspanin exosomal markers and various antiviral factors. Semen exosomes are internalized by recipient cells and upon internalization, inhibit replication of a broad array of HIV-1 strains. Remarkably, the anti-HIV-1 activity of semen exosomes is specific to retroviruses because semen exosomes blocked replication of the murine AIDS (mAIDS) virus complex (LP-BM5). However, exosomes from blood had no effect on HIV-1 or LP-BM5 replication. Additionally, semen and blood exosomes had no effect on replication of herpes simplex virus; types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2). Mechanistic studies indicate that semen exosomes exert a post-entry block on HIV-1 replication by orchestrating deleterious effects on particle-associated reverse transcriptase activity and infectivity. CONCLUSIONS: These illuminating findings i) improve our knowledge of the cargo of semen exosomes, ii) reveal that semen exosomes possess anti-retroviral activity, and iii) suggest that semen exosome-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication may provide novel opportunities for the development of new therapeutics for HIV-1. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (69th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Semen
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Commercial + Immunoaffinity (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81/ GAPDH
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
TEM measurements
50-100
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Semen
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Commercial kit
ExoQuick
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD81/ GAPDH
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
GAPDH
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
immune EM
Image type
Close-up
EV140076 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.1 µm filter
UF
Goldie BJ 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Goldie BJ, Dun MD, Lin M, Smith ND, Verrills NM, Dayas CV, Cairns MJ
Journal
Nucleic Acids Res
Abstract
Rapid input-restricted change in gene expression is an important aspect of synaptic plasticity requi (show more...)Rapid input-restricted change in gene expression is an important aspect of synaptic plasticity requiring complex mechanisms of post-transcriptional mRNA trafficking and regulation. Small non-coding miRNA are uniquely poised to support these functions by providing a nucleic-acid-based specificity component for universal-sequence-dependent RNA binding complexes. We investigated the subcellular distribution of these molecules in resting and potassium chloride depolarized human neuroblasts, and found both selective enrichment and depletion in neurites. Depolarization was associated with a neurite-restricted decrease in miRNA expression; a subset of these molecules was recovered from the depolarization medium in nuclease resistant extracellular exosomes. These vesicles were enriched with primate specific miRNA and the synaptic-plasticity-associated protein MAP1b. These findings further support a role for miRNA as neural plasticity regulators, as they are compartmentalized in neurons and undergo activity-associated redistribution or release into the extracellular matrix. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (75th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.1 µm filter + UF
Protein markers
EV: Flotilin1/ LAMP1
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Filtration steps
0.2µm > x > 0.1µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Flotilin1/ LAMP1
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
LAMP1
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140122 1/2 Homo sapiens Urine filter
Immunoaffinity
Echevarria J 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Echevarria J, Royo F, Pazos R, Salazar L, Falcon-Perez JM, Reichardt NC
Journal
Chembiochem
Abstract
As cellular-derived vesicles largely maintain the biomolecule composition of their original tissue, (show more...)As cellular-derived vesicles largely maintain the biomolecule composition of their original tissue, exosomes, which are found in nearly all body fluids, have enormous potential as clinical disease markers. A major bottleneck in the development of exosome-based diagnostic assays is the challenging purification of these vesicles; this requires time-consuming and instrument-based procedures. We employed lectin arrays to identify potential lectins as probes for affinity-based isolation of exosomes from the urinary matrix. We found three lectins that showed specific interactions to vesicles and no (or only residual) interaction with matrix proteins. Based on these findings a bead-based method for lectin-based isolation of exosomes from urine was developed as a sample preparation step for exosome-based biomarker research. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (78th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Urine
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
filter + Immunoaffinity
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ Flotilin1/ AQP1/ AQP2/ CD13
non-EV: Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Urine
Isolation Method
Other
Name other isolation method
filter
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ Flotilin1/ AQP1/ AQP2/ CD13
Detected contaminants
Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
AQP1/ AQP2/ CD13
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
cryo EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140023 1/1 Ovis aries Serum Commercial Cleys ER 2014 38%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Cleys ER, Halleran JL, McWhorter E, Hergenreder J, Enriquez VA, da Silveira JC, Bruemmer JE, Winger QA, Bouma GJ
Journal
Mol Reprod Dev
Abstract
Despite reports that circulating levels of maternal serum exosomes increase during pregnancy and tha (show more...)Despite reports that circulating levels of maternal serum exosomes increase during pregnancy and that placenta-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in humans, little is known about exosomes and miRNAs during pregnancy in agriculture animals. In this study, we characterized the expression of 94 miRNAs in ovine placentomes at gestation day (GD) 90 by real-time PCR, and then investigated the presence of these miRNAs in exosome samples isolated from maternal jugular blood in non-pregnant ewes and at GD30 and GD90 and in umbilical blood collected at GD90. In maternal jugular exosome samples, 13 miRNAs were present in lower and 12 miRNAs were present in higher amounts at GD90 compared to non-pregnant (GD0) or GD30. Additionally, 12 miRNAs were present in higher amounts in umbilical venous exosomes compared to umbilical arterial exosomes; only miR-132 was lower in exosomes isolated from umbilical venous blood than from umbilical arterial blood. In placentome samples, miR-34c and miR135a abundance was higher in cotyledon tissue than in caruncle, while miR-183 and miR-379 amounts were higher in caruncle than cotyledon tissue. Only miR-379 was differentially expressed in all serum exosomes and placentome samples. Pathway analysis predicted that differentially expressed maternal serum exosomal miRNAs target Cellular Growth and Proliferation and Organ Development pathways, while umbilical serum exosomal and placentomes miRNAs were predicted to target cellular development and organismal/embryonic development. (hide)
EV-METRIC
38% (92nd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Serum
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Commercial
Protein markers
EV: HSP70
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Ovis aries
Sample Type
Serum
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Commercial kit
ExoQuick
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
HSP70
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140265 1/1 Mesocricetus auratus Cell culture supernatant Density cushion Zeev-Ben-Mordehai T 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zeev-Ben-Mordehai T, Vasishtan D, Siebert CA, Whittle C, Grünewald K
Journal
Structure
Abstract
Membrane protein-enriched extracellular vesicles (MPEEVs) provide a platform for studying intact mem (show more...)Membrane protein-enriched extracellular vesicles (MPEEVs) provide a platform for studying intact membrane proteins natively anchored with the correct topology in genuine biological membranes. This approach circumvents the need to conduct tedious detergent screens for solubilization, purification, and reconstitution required in classical membrane protein studies. We have applied this method to three integral type I membrane proteins, namely the Caenorhabditis elegans cell-cell fusion proteins AFF-1 and EFF-1 and the glycoprotein B (gB) from Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1). Electron cryotomography followed by subvolume averaging allowed the 3D reconstruction of EFF-1 and HSV1 gB in the membrane as well as an analysis of the spatial distribution and interprotein interactions on the membrane. MPEEVs have many applications beyond structural/functional investigations, such as facilitating the raising of antibodies, for protein-protein interaction assays or for diagnostics use, as biomarkers, and possibly therapeutics. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density cushion
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Mesocricetus auratus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Characterization: Protein analysis
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
cryo EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140116 1/1 Candida albicans Yeast 0.8 µm filter
dUC
UF
Vargas G 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Vargas G, Rocha JD, Oliveira DL, Albuquerque PC, Frases S, Santos SS, Nosanchuk JD, Gomes AM, Medeiros LC, Miranda K, Sobreira TJ, Nakayasu ES, Arigi EA, Casadevall A, Guimaraes AJ, Rodrigues ML, Freire-de-Lima CG, Almeida IC, Nimrichter L
Journal
Cell Microbiol
Abstract
The release of extracellular vesicles (EV) by fungal organisms is considered an alternative transpor (show more...)The release of extracellular vesicles (EV) by fungal organisms is considered an alternative transport mechanism to trans-cell wall passage of macromolecules. Previous studies have revealed the presence of EV in culture supernatants from fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Malassezia sympodialis and Candida albicans. Here we investigated the size, composition, kinetics of internalization by bone marrow-derived murine macrophages (MO) and dendritic cells (DC), and the immunomodulatory activity of C. albicans EV. We also evaluated the impact of EV on fungal virulence using the Galleria mellonella larvae model. By transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, we identified two populations ranging from 50 to 100 nm and 350 to 850 nm. Two predominant seroreactive proteins (27 kDa and 37 kDa) and a group of polydispersed mannoproteins were observed in EV by immunoblotting analysis. Proteomic analysis of C. albicans EV revealed proteins related to pathogenesis, cell organization, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, response to stress, and several other functions. The major lipids detected by thin-layer chromatography were ergosterol, lanosterol and glucosylceramide. Short exposure of MO to EV resulted in internalization of these vesicles and production of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-12, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) and IL-10. Similarly, EV-treated DC produced IL-12p40, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. In addition, EV treatment induced the up-regulation of CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class-II (MHC-II). Inoculation of G. mellonella larvae with EV followed by challenge with C. albicans reduced the number of recovered viable yeasts in comparison with infected larvae control. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. albicans EV were immunologically active and could potentially interfere with the host responses in the setting of invasive candidiasis. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (83rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Yeast
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.8 µm filter + dUC + UF
Protein markers
EV: "C. albicans antigens"
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Candida albicans
Sample Type
Yeast
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Filtration steps
> 0.45 µm,
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
"C. albicans antigens"
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
"C. albicans antigens"
Characterization: Particle analysis
DLS
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140290 1/3 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
UF
van der Mijn JC 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
van der Mijn JC, Sol N, Mellema W, Jimenez CR, Piersma SR, Dekker H, Schutte LM, Smit EF, Broxterman HJ, Skog J, Tannous BA, Wurdinger T, Verheul HM
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small nanometre-sized vesicles that are circulating in (show more...)BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small nanometre-sized vesicles that are circulating in blood. They are released by multiple cells, including tumour cells. We hypothesized that circulating EVs contain protein kinases that may be assessed as biomarkers during treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. METHODS: EVs released by U87 glioma cells, H3255 and H1650 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were profiled by tandem mass spectrometry. Total AKT/protein kinase B and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) levels as well as their relative phosphorylation were measured by western blot in isogenic U87 cells with or without mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) and their corresponding EVs. To assess biomarker potential, plasma samples from 24 healthy volunteers and 42 patients with cancer were used. RESULTS: In total, 130 different protein kinases were found to be released in EVs including multiple drug targets, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AKT, ERK1/2, AXL and EGFR. Overexpression of EGFRvIII in U87 cells results in increased phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT and ERK1/2 in cells and EVs, whereas a decreased phosphorylation was noted upon treatment with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. EV samples derived from patients with cancer contained significantly more protein (p=0.0067) compared to healthy donors. Phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in plasma EVs from both healthy donors and patients with cancer was relatively low compared to levels in cancer cells. Preliminary analysis of total AKT and ERK1/2 levels in plasma EVs from patients with NSCLC before and after sorafenib/metformin treatment (n=12) shows a significant decrease in AKT levels among patients with a favourable treatment response (p<0.005). CONCLUSION: Phosphorylation of protein kinases in EVs reflects their phosphorylation in tumour cells. Total AKT protein levels may allow monitoring of kinase inhibitor responses in patients with cancer. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + UF
Adj. k-factor
256 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD63
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Biomarker
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum freeEV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
SW32
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
256.0
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD63
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140258 2/3 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Ridder K 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Ridder K, Keller S, Dams M, Rupp AK, Schlaudraff J, Del Turco D, Starmann J, Macas J, Karpova D, Devraj K, Depboylu C, Landfried B, Arnold B, Plate KH, Höglinger G, Sültmann H, Altevogt P, Momma S
Journal
PLoS Biol
Abstract
Mechanisms behind how the immune system signals to the brain in response to systemic inflammation ar (show more...)Mechanisms behind how the immune system signals to the brain in response to systemic inflammation are not fully understood. Transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase specifically in the hematopoietic lineage in a Cre reporter background display recombination and marker gene expression in Purkinje neurons. Here we show that reportergene expression in neurons is caused by intercellular transfer of functional Cre recombinase messenger RNA from immune cells into neurons in the absence of cell fusion. In vitro purified secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) from blood cells contain Cre mRNA, which induces recombination in neurons when injected into the brain. Although Cre-mediated recombination events in the brain occur very rarely in healthy animals, their number increases considerably in different injury models, particularly under inflammatory conditions, and extend beyond Purkinje neurons to other neuronal populations in cortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Recombined Purkinje neurons differ in their miRNA profile from their nonrecombined counterparts, indicating physiological significance. These observations reveal the existence of a previously unrecognized mechanism to communicate RNA-based signals between the hematopoietic system and various organs, including the brain, in response to inflammation. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Adj. k-factor
97.39 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: CD9/ ADAM10
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120 OR 1080
Pelleting: rotor type
SW40
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
97.39
Density gradient
Only used for validation of main results
1
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
0.25
Highest density fraction
2
Orientation
Top-down
Rotor type
SW40
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ ADAM10
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
ADAM10
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up
EV140255 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Morhayim J 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Morhayim J, van de Peppel J, Demmers JA, Kocer G, Nigg AL, van Driel M, Chiba H, van Leeuwen JP
Journal
FASEB J
Abstract
Beyond forming bone, osteoblasts play pivotal roles in various biologic processes, including hematop (show more...)Beyond forming bone, osteoblasts play pivotal roles in various biologic processes, including hematopoiesis and bone metastasis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated in intercellular communication via transfer of proteins and nucleic acids between cells. We focused on the proteomic characterization of nonmineralizing (NMOBs) and mineralizing (MOBs) human osteoblast (SV-HFOs) EVs and investigated their effect on human prostate cancer (PC3) cells by microscopic, proteomic, and gene expression analyses. Proteomic analysis showed that 97% of the proteins were shared among NMOB and MOB EVs, and 30% were novel osteoblast-specific EV proteins. Label-free quantification demonstrated mineralization stage-dependent 5-fold enrichment of 59 and 451 EV proteins in NMOBs and MOBs, respectively. Interestingly, bioinformatic analyses of the osteoblast EV proteomes and EV-regulated prostate cancer gene expression profiles showed that they converged on pathways involved in cell survival and growth. This was verified by in vitro proliferation assays where osteoblast EV uptake led to 2-fold increase in PC3 cell growth compared to cell-free culture medium-derived vesicle controls. Our findings elucidate the mineralization stage-specific protein content of osteoblast-secreted EVs, show a novel way by which osteoblasts communicate with prostate cancer, and open up innovative avenues for therapeutic intervention. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
253.9 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ Annexin2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
SW28
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
253.9
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ Annexin2
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Annexin2
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140270 2/3 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Menck K 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Menck K, Scharf C, Bleckmann A, Dyck L, Rost U, Wenzel D, Dhople VM, Siam L, Pukrop T, Binder C, Klemm F
Journal
J Mol Cell Biol
Abstract
Tumor cells secrete not only a variety of soluble factors, but also extracellular vesicles that are (show more...)Tumor cells secrete not only a variety of soluble factors, but also extracellular vesicles that are known to support the establishment of a favorable tumor niche by influencing the surrounding stroma cells. Here we show that tumor-derived microvesicles (T-MV) also directly influence the tumor cells by enhancing their invasion in a both autologous and heterologous manner. Neither the respective vesicle-free supernatant nor MV from benign mammary cells mediate invasion. Uptake of T-MV is essential for the proinvasive effect. We further identify the highly glycosylated form of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) as a marker for proinvasive MV. EMMPRIN is also present at high levels on MV from metastatic breast cancer patients in vivo. Anti-EMMPRIN strategies, such as MV deglycosylation, gene knockdown, and specific blocking peptides, inhibit MV-induced invasion. Interestingly, the effect of EMMPRIN-bearing MV is not mediated by matrix metalloproteinases but by activation of the p38/MAPK signaling pathway in the tumor cells. In conclusion, T-MV stimulate cancer cell invasion via a direct feedback mechanism dependent on highly glycosylated EMMPRIN. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
microvesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ EMMPRIN/ MUC1/ Flotillin2/ Tubulin
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.15-1.18
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
35
Density gradient
Only used for validation of main results
1
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
0.25
Highest density fraction
2.25
Orientation
Top-down
Speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
TSG101/ EMMPRIN/ MUC1/ Flotillin2/ Tubulin
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
EMMPRIN/ MUC1/ Flotillin2/ Tubulin
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140270 3/3 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Menck K 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Menck K, Scharf C, Bleckmann A, Dyck L, Rost U, Wenzel D, Dhople VM, Siam L, Pukrop T, Binder C, Klemm F
Journal
J Mol Cell Biol
Abstract
Tumor cells secrete not only a variety of soluble factors, but also extracellular vesicles that are (show more...)Tumor cells secrete not only a variety of soluble factors, but also extracellular vesicles that are known to support the establishment of a favorable tumor niche by influencing the surrounding stroma cells. Here we show that tumor-derived microvesicles (T-MV) also directly influence the tumor cells by enhancing their invasion in a both autologous and heterologous manner. Neither the respective vesicle-free supernatant nor MV from benign mammary cells mediate invasion. Uptake of T-MV is essential for the proinvasive effect. We further identify the highly glycosylated form of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) as a marker for proinvasive MV. EMMPRIN is also present at high levels on MV from metastatic breast cancer patients in vivo. Anti-EMMPRIN strategies, such as MV deglycosylation, gene knockdown, and specific blocking peptides, inhibit MV-induced invasion. Interestingly, the effect of EMMPRIN-bearing MV is not mediated by matrix metalloproteinases but by activation of the p38/MAPK signaling pathway in the tumor cells. In conclusion, T-MV stimulate cancer cell invasion via a direct feedback mechanism dependent on highly glycosylated EMMPRIN. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
microvesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: TSG101/ EMMPRIN/ Flotillin2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
EV density (g/ml)
1.13-1.22
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Density gradient
Only used for validation of main results
1
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
0.25
Highest density fraction
2.25
Orientation
Top-down
Speed (g)
100000
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
TSG101/ EMMPRIN/ Flotillin2
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
EMMPRIN/ Flotillin2
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140115 2/4 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Lozito TP 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Lozito TP, Tuan RS
Journal
J Cell Mol Med
Abstract
Tightly associated with blood vessels in their perivascular niche, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC (show more...)Tightly associated with blood vessels in their perivascular niche, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) closely interact with endothelial cells (ECs). MSCs also home to tumours and interact with cancer cells (CCs). Microparticles (MPs) are cell-derived vesicles released into the extracellular environment along with secreted factors. MPs are capable of intercellular signalling and, as biomolecular shuttles, transfer proteins and RNA from one cell to another. Here, we characterize interactions among ECs, CCs and MSCs via MPs and secreted factors in vitro. MPs and non-MP secreted factors (Sup) were isolated from serum-free medium conditioned by human microvascular ECs (HMEC-1) or by the CC line HT1080. Fluorescently labelled MPs were prepared from cells treated with membrane dyes, and cytosolic GFP-containing MPs were isolated from cells transduced with CMV-GFP lentivirus. MSCs were treated with MPs, Sup, or vehicle controls, and analysed for MP uptake, proliferation, migration, activation of intracellular signalling pathways and cytokine release. Fluorescently labelled MPs fused with MSCs, transferring the fluorescent dyes to the MSC surface. GFP was transferred to and retained in MSCs incubated with GFP-MPs, but not free GFP. Thus, only MP-associated cellular proteins were taken up and retained by MSCs, suggesting that MP biomolecules, but not secreted factors, are shuttled to MSCs. MP and Sup treatment significantly increased MSC proliferation, migration, and MMP-1, MMP-3, CCL-2/MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion compared with vehicle controls. MSCs treated with Sup and MPs also exhibited activated NF-?B signalling. Taken together, these results suggest that MPs act to regulate MSC functions through several mechanisms. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
microparticles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: Calnexin/ Caveolin/ GAPDH
non-EV: "LAMP2/ Rab5/ CD63/ HSP70"
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
30
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Calnexin/ Caveolin/ GAPDH
Detected contaminants
"LAMP2/ Rab5/ CD63/ HSP70"
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Calnexin/ Caveolin/ GAPDH
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140115 3/4 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Lozito TP 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Lozito TP, Tuan RS
Journal
J Cell Mol Med
Abstract
Tightly associated with blood vessels in their perivascular niche, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC (show more...)Tightly associated with blood vessels in their perivascular niche, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) closely interact with endothelial cells (ECs). MSCs also home to tumours and interact with cancer cells (CCs). Microparticles (MPs) are cell-derived vesicles released into the extracellular environment along with secreted factors. MPs are capable of intercellular signalling and, as biomolecular shuttles, transfer proteins and RNA from one cell to another. Here, we characterize interactions among ECs, CCs and MSCs via MPs and secreted factors in vitro. MPs and non-MP secreted factors (Sup) were isolated from serum-free medium conditioned by human microvascular ECs (HMEC-1) or by the CC line HT1080. Fluorescently labelled MPs were prepared from cells treated with membrane dyes, and cytosolic GFP-containing MPs were isolated from cells transduced with CMV-GFP lentivirus. MSCs were treated with MPs, Sup, or vehicle controls, and analysed for MP uptake, proliferation, migration, activation of intracellular signalling pathways and cytokine release. Fluorescently labelled MPs fused with MSCs, transferring the fluorescent dyes to the MSC surface. GFP was transferred to and retained in MSCs incubated with GFP-MPs, but not free GFP. Thus, only MP-associated cellular proteins were taken up and retained by MSCs, suggesting that MP biomolecules, but not secreted factors, are shuttled to MSCs. MP and Sup treatment significantly increased MSC proliferation, migration, and MMP-1, MMP-3, CCL-2/MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion compared with vehicle controls. MSCs treated with Sup and MPs also exhibited activated NF-?B signalling. Taken together, these results suggest that MPs act to regulate MSC functions through several mechanisms. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
microparticles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ HSP70/ Rab5/ LAMP2/ GAPDH
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ HSP70/ Rab5/ LAMP2/ GAPDH
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Rab5/ LAMP2/ GAPDH
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140048 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Lai CP 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Lai CP, Mardini O, Ericsson M, Prabhakar S, Maguire CA, Chen JW, Tannous BA, Breakefield XO
Journal
ACS Nano
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized vesicles released by normal and diseased cells as a novel (show more...)Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized vesicles released by normal and diseased cells as a novel form of intercellular communication and can serve as an effective therapeutic vehicle for genes and drugs. Yet, much remains unknown about the in vivo properties of EVs such as tissue distribution, blood levels, and urine clearance, important parameters that will define their therapeutic effectiveness and potential toxicity. Here we combined Gaussia luciferase and metabolic biotinylation to create a sensitive EV reporter (EV-GlucB) for multimodal imaging in vivo, as well as monitoring of EV levels in the organs and biofluids ex vivo after administration of EVs. Bioluminescence and fluorescence-mediated tomography imaging on mice displayed a predominant localization of intravenously administered EVs in the spleen followed by the liver. Monitoring EV signal in the organs, blood, and urine further revealed that the EVs first undergo a rapid distribution phase followed by a longer elimination phase via hepatic and renal routes within six hours, which are both faster than previously reported using dye-labeled EVs. Moreover, we demonstrate systemically injected EVs can be delivered to tumor sites within an hour following injection. Altogether, we show the EVs are dynamically processed in vivo with accurate spatiotemporal resolution and target a number of normal organs as well as tumors with implications for disease pathology and therapeutic design. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + Sucrose-DG (valid.)
Protein markers
EV: Alix
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Density gradient
Only used for validation of main results
1
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
8
Highest density fraction
60
Orientation
Top-down
Speed (g)
100000
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
immune EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140289 3/3 Homo sapiens Blood plasma 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Sucrose-DG
Kranendonk ME 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Kranendonk ME, Visseren FL, van Herwaarden JA, Nolte-'t Hoen EN, de Jager W, Wauben MH, Kalkhoven E
Journal
Obesity
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is a key mechanism in obesity-induced cardiovascular disease. To (show more...)OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is a key mechanism in obesity-induced cardiovascular disease. To unravel mechanisms whereby human adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic IR, the effect of human AT-extracellular vesicles (EVs) on insulin signaling in liver and muscle cells was determined. METHODS: EVs released from human subcutaneous (SAT) and omental AT (OAT)-explants ex vivo were used for stimulation of hepatocytes and myotubes in vitro. Subsequently, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and expression of gluconeogenic genes (G6P, PEPCK) was determined. AT-EV adipokine levels were measured by multiplex immunoassay, and AT-EVs were quantified by high-resolution flow cytometry. RESULTS: In hepatocytes, AT-EVs from the majority of patients inhibited insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, while EVs from some patients stimulated insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. In myotubes AT-EVs exerted an ambiguous effect on insulin signaling. Hepatic Akt phosphorylation related negatively to G6P-expression by both SAT-EVs (r = -0.60, P = 0.01) and OAT-EVs (r = -0.74, P = 0.001). MCP-1, IL-6, and MIF concentrations were higher in OAT-EVs compared to SAT-EVs and differently related to lower Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes. Finally, the number of OAT-EVs correlated positively with liver enzymes indicative for liver dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Human AT-EVs can stimulate or inhibit insulin signaling in hepatocytes- possibly depending on their adipokine content- and may thereby contribute to systemic IR. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (75th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC + Sucrose-DG
Adj. k-factor
256 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: CD9
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.15-1.2
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
SW32
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
256.0
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
50
Density gradient
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
0.4
Highest density fraction
2.5
Orientation
Bottom-up
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140054 2/2 Homo sapiens Adipose tissue dUC
Sucrose-DG
Kranendonk ME 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Kranendonk ME, Visseren FL, van Balkom BW, Nolte-'t Hoen EN, van Herwaarden JA, de Jager W, Schipper HS, Brenkman AB, Verhaar MC, Wauben MH, Kalkhoven E
Journal
Obesity
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by human adipocytes or adipose tissue (AT)-explants (show more...)OBJECTIVE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by human adipocytes or adipose tissue (AT)-explants play a role in the paracrine interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, a key mechanism in AT inflammation, leading to metabolic complications like insulin resistance (IR) were determined. METHODS: EVs released from in vitro differentiated adipocytes and AT-explants ex vivo were characterized by electron microscopy, Western blot, multiplex adipokine-profiling, and quantified by flow cytometry. Primary monocytes were stimulated with EVs from adipocytes, subcutaneous (SCAT) or omental-derived AT (OAT), and phenotyped. Macrophage supernatant was subsequently used to assess the effect on insulin signaling in adipocytes. RESULTS: Adipocyte and AT-derived EVs differentiated monocytes into macrophages characteristic of human adipose tissue macrophages (ATM), defined by release of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The adiponectin-positive subset of AT-derived EVs, presumably representing adipocyte-derived EVs, induced a more pronounced ATM-phenotype than the adiponectin-negative AT-EVs. This effect was more evident for OAT-EVs versus SCAT-EVs. Furthermore, supernatant of macrophages pre-stimulated with AT-EVs interfered with insulin signaling in human adipocytes. Finally, the number of OAT-derived EVs correlated positively with patients HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: A possible role for human AT-EVs in a reciprocal pro-inflammatory loop between adipocytes and macrophages, with the potential to aggravate local and systemic IR was demonstrated. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (62nd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Adipose tissue
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + Sucrose-DG
Adj. k-factor
256 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: CD9
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
1.12-1.25
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Adipose tissue
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Pelleting: rotor type
SW32;SW40;SW60
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
256.0
Density gradient
Density medium
Sucrose
Lowest density fraction
0.4
Highest density fraction
2.5
Orientation
Bottom-up
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9
Characterization: Particle analysis
Particle analysis: flow cytometry
EV140047 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Gonzalez E 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Gonzalez E, Piva M, Rodriguez-Suarez E, Gil D, Royo F, Elortza F, Falcon-Perez JM, Vivanco Md
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. One of the most important pro (show more...)Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. One of the most important prognostic factors for survival is the early detection of the disease. Recent studies indicate that extracellular vesicles may provide diagnostic information for cancer management. We demonstrate the secretion of extracellular vesicles by primary breast epithelial cells enriched for stem/progenitor cells cultured as mammospheres, in non-adherent conditions. Using a proteomic approach we identified proteins contained in these vesicles whose expression is affected by hormonal changes in the cellular environment. In addition, we showed that these vesicles are capable of promoting changes in expression levels of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell markers. Our findings suggest that secreted extracellular vesicles could represent potential diagnostic and/or prognostic markers for breast cancer and support a role for extracellular vesicles in cancer progression. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ Flotilin1/ CD133/ CD13
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ Flotilin1/ CD133/ CD13
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD133/ CD13
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
cryo EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140112 1/1 Candida albicans Yeast dUC
UF
Gil-Bona A 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Gil-Bona A, Llama-Palacios A, Parra CM, Vivanco F, Nombela C, Monteoliva L, Gil C
Journal
J Proteome Res
Abstract
The commensal fungus Candida albicans secretes a considerable number of proteins and, as in differen (show more...)The commensal fungus Candida albicans secretes a considerable number of proteins and, as in different fungal pathogens, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have also been observed. Our report contains the first proteomic analysis of EVs in C. albicans and a comparative proteomic study of the soluble secreted proteins. With this purpose, cell-free culture supernatants from C. albicans were separated into EVs and EV-free supernatant and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. A total of 96 proteins were identified including 75 and 61 proteins in EVs and EV-free supernatant, respectively. Out of these, 40 proteins were found in secretome by proteomic analysis for the first time. The soluble proteins were enriched in cell wall and secreted pathogenesis related proteins. Interestingly, more than 90% of these EV-free supernatant proteins were classical secretory proteins with predicted N-terminal signal peptide, whereas all the leaderless proteins involved in metabolism, including some moonlighting proteins, or in the exocytosis and endocytosis process were exclusively cargo of the EVs. We propose a model of the different mechanisms used by C. albicans secreted proteins to reach the extracellular medium. Furthermore, we tested the potential of the Bgl2 protein, identified in vesicles and EV-free supernatant, to protect against a systemic candidiasis in a murine model. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (83rd percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Yeast
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + UF
Protein markers
EV: TDH3/ BGL2
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Candida albicans
Sample Type
Yeast
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
TDH3/ BGL2
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
TDH3/ BGL2
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV140120 7/7 Homo sapiens Blood plasma 0.2 µm filter
Vn peptides
Ghosh A 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Ghosh A, Davey M, Chute IC, Griffiths SG, Lewis S, Chacko S, Barnett D, Crapoulet N, Fournier S, Joy A, Caissie MC, Ferguson AD, Daigle M, Meli MV, Lewis SM, Ouellette RJ
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Recent studies indicate that extracellular vesicles are an important source material for many clinic (show more...)Recent studies indicate that extracellular vesicles are an important source material for many clinical applications, including minimally-invasive disease diagnosis. However, challenges for rapid and simple extracellular vesicle collection have hindered their application. We have developed and validated a novel class of peptides (which we named venceremin, or Vn) that exhibit nucleotide-independent specific affinity for canonical heat shock proteins. The Vn peptides were validated to specifically and efficiently capture HSP-containing extracellular vesicles from cell culture growth media, plasma, and urine by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, sequencing of nucleic acid cargo, proteomic profiling, immunoblotting, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. All of these analyses confirmed the material captured by the Vn peptides was comparable to those purified by the standard ultracentrifugation method. We show that the Vn peptides are a useful tool for the rapid isolation of extracellular vesicles using standard laboratory equipment. Moreover, the Vn peptides are adaptable to diverse platforms and therefore represent an excellent solution to the challenge of extracellular vesicle isolation for research and clinical applications. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (75th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Blood plasma
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + Vn peptides
Protein markers
EV: None
non-EV: None
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Blood plasma
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Other
Name other isolation method
Vn peptides
Characterization: Protein analysis
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140110 1/2 Mus musculus Cell culture supernatant dUC Cossetti C 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Cossetti C, Iraci N, Mercer TR, Leonardi T, Alpi E, Drago D, Alfaro-Cervello C, Saini HK, Davis MP, Schaeffer J, Vega B, Stefanini M, Zhao C, Muller W, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Mathivanan S, Bachi A, Enright AJ, Mattick JS, Pluchino S
Journal
Mol Cell
Abstract
The idea that stem cell therapies work only via cell replacement is challenged by the observation of (show more...)The idea that stem cell therapies work only via cell replacement is challenged by the observation of consistent intercellular molecule exchange between the graft and the host. Here we defined a mechanism of cellular signaling by which neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) communicate with the microenvironment via extracellular vesicles (EVs), and we elucidated its molecular signature and function. We observed cytokine-regulated pathways that sort proteins and mRNAs into EVs. We described induction of interferon gamma (IFN-?) pathway in NPCs exposed to proinflammatory cytokines that is mirrored in EVs. We showed that IFN-? bound to EVs through Ifngr1 activates Stat1 in target cells. Finally, we demonstrated that endogenous Stat1 and Ifngr1 in target cells are indispensable to sustain the activation of Stat1 signaling by EV-associated IFN-?/Ifngr1 complexes. Our study identifies a mechanism of cellular signaling regulated by EV-associated IFN-?/Ifngr1 complexes, which grafted stem cells may use to communicate with the host immune system. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
122.2 (pelleting) / 89.21 (washing)
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD63/ CD9/ HSP90/ HSP70/ TSG101/ Ago1/ Ago2/ Tnfr1/ Beta-actin
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Mus musculus
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
70
Pelleting: rotor type
70.1Ti
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
122.2
Wash: Rotor Type
TLA55
Wash: adjusted k-factor
89.21
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD63/ CD9/ HSP90/ HSP70/ TSG101/ Ago1/ Ago2/ Tnfr1/ Beta-actin
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
Ago1/ Ago2/ Tnfr1/ Beta-actin
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140240 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Zhao X 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhao X, Wu Y, Duan J, Ma Y, Shen Z, Wei L, Cui X, Zhang J, Xie Y, Liu J
Journal
J Proteome Res
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcino (show more...)Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV-mediated pathogenesis is only partially understood, but X protein (HBx) reportedly possesses oncogenic potential. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with diverse functions released by various cells including hepatocytes, and HBV harnesses cellular exosome biogenesis and export machineries for virion morphogenesis and secretion. Therefore, HBV infection might cause changes in exosome contents with functional implications for both virus and host. In this work, exosome protein content changes induced by HBV and HBx were quantitatively analyzed by SILAC/LC-MS/MS. Exosomes prepared from SILAC-labeled hepatoma cell line Huh-7 transfected with HBx, wildtype, or HBx-null HBV replicon plasmids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Systematic analyses of MS data and confirmatory immunoblotting showed that HBx overexpression and HBV, with or without HBx, replication in Huh-7 cells indeed caused marked and specific changes in exosome protein contents. Furthermore, specific changes in protein contents were also detected in exosomes purified from HBV-infected patients' sera compared with control sera negative for HBV markers. These results illustrate a new aspect of interactions between HBV and the host and provide the foundation for future research into roles played by exosomes in HBV infection and pathogenesis. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
256 (pelleting) / 255.8 (washing)
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ TSG101
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
SW32
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
256.0
Wash: Rotor Type
SW41
Wash: adjusted k-factor
255.8
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ TSG101
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140240 2/2 Homo sapiens Serum dUC Zhao X 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhao X, Wu Y, Duan J, Ma Y, Shen Z, Wei L, Cui X, Zhang J, Xie Y, Liu J
Journal
J Proteome Res
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcino (show more...)Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV-mediated pathogenesis is only partially understood, but X protein (HBx) reportedly possesses oncogenic potential. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with diverse functions released by various cells including hepatocytes, and HBV harnesses cellular exosome biogenesis and export machineries for virion morphogenesis and secretion. Therefore, HBV infection might cause changes in exosome contents with functional implications for both virus and host. In this work, exosome protein content changes induced by HBV and HBx were quantitatively analyzed by SILAC/LC-MS/MS. Exosomes prepared from SILAC-labeled hepatoma cell line Huh-7 transfected with HBx, wildtype, or HBx-null HBV replicon plasmids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Systematic analyses of MS data and confirmatory immunoblotting showed that HBx overexpression and HBV, with or without HBx, replication in Huh-7 cells indeed caused marked and specific changes in exosome protein contents. Furthermore, specific changes in protein contents were also detected in exosomes purified from HBV-infected patients' sera compared with control sera negative for HBV markers. These results illustrate a new aspect of interactions between HBV and the host and provide the foundation for future research into roles played by exosomes in HBV infection and pathogenesis. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (84th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Serum
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Adj. k-factor
256 (pelleting) / 255.8 (washing)
Protein markers
EV: Alix
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Serum
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Pelleting: rotor type
SW32
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
256.0
Wash: Rotor Type
SW41
Wash: adjusted k-factor
255.8
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140053 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Ye SB 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Ye SB, Li ZL, Luo DH, Huang BJ, Chen YS, Zhang XS, Cui J, Zeng YX, Li J
Journal
Oncotarget
Abstract
Tumor-derived exosomes contain biologically active proteins and messenger and microRNAs (miRNAs). Th (show more...)Tumor-derived exosomes contain biologically active proteins and messenger and microRNAs (miRNAs). These particles serve as vehicles of intercellular communication and are emerging mediators of tumorigenesis and immune escape. Here, we isolated 30-100 nm exosomes from the serum of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) or the supernatant of TW03 cells. Increased circulating exosome concentrations were correlated with advanced lymphoid node stage and poor prognosis in NPC patients (P< 0.05). TW03-derived exosomes impaired T-cell function by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and Th1 and Th17 differentiation and promoting Treg induction by NPC cells in vitro. These results are associated with decreases in ERK, STAT1, and STAT3 phosphorylation and increases in STAT5 phosphorylation in exosome-stimulated T-cells. TW03-derived exosomes increased the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10 but decreased IFN?, IL-2, and IL-17 release from CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Furthermore, five commonly over-expressed miRNAs were identified in the exosomes from patient sera or NPC cells: hsa-miR-24-3p, hsa-miR-891a, hsa-miR-106a-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, and hsa-miR-1908. These over-expressed miRNA clusters down-regulated the MARK1 signaling pathway to alter cell proliferation and differentiation. Overall, these observations reveal the clinical relevance and prognostic value of tumor-derived exosomes and identify a unique intercellular mechanism mediated by tumor-derived exosomes to modulate T-cell function in NPC. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ HSP70/ MHC1/ LAMP1
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
60
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ HSP70/ MHC1/ LAMP1
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
MHC1/ LAMP1
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140234 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Commercial
dUC
Xiao X 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Xiao X, Yu S, Li S, Wu J, Ma R, Cao H, Zhu Y, Feng J
Journal
PLoS One
Abstract
Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by many cells that c (show more...)Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by many cells that could be found in most body fluids. The main functions of exosomes are cellular communication and cellular waste clean-up. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of exosomes in the regulation of sensitivity of the lung cancer cell line A549 to cisplatin (DDP). When DDP was added to A549 cells, exosomes secretion was strengthened. Addition of the secreted exosomes to other A549 cells increased the resistance of these A549 cells to DDP. Upon exposure of A549 to DDP, the expression levels of several miRNAs and mRNAs reportedly associated with DDP sensitivity changed significantly in exosomes; these changes may mediate the resistance of A549 cells to DDP. Exosomes released by A549 cells during DDP exposure decreased the sensitivity of other A549 cells to DDP, which may be mediated by miRNAs and mRNAs exchange by exosomes via cell-to-cell communication. Although the detailed mechanism of resistance remains unclear, we believed that inhibition of exosomes formation and release might present a novel strategy for lung cancer treatment in the future. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Commercial + dUC
Adj. k-factor
156.9 (pelleting)
Protein markers
EV: CD63
non-EV: Beta-actin
Proteomics
no
TEM measurements
50-70
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Pelleting: rotor type
70Ti
Pelleting: adjusted k-factor
156.9
Commercial kit
ExoQuick
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63
Detected contaminants
Beta-actin
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140045 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant Density cushion
dUC
Webber J 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Webber J, Stone TC, Katilius E, Smith BC, Gordon B, Mason MD, Tabi Z, Brewis IA, Clayton A
Journal
Mol Cell Proteomics
Abstract
We have used a novel affinity-based proteomics technology to examine the protein signature of small (show more...)We have used a novel affinity-based proteomics technology to examine the protein signature of small secreted extracellular vesicles called exosomes. The technology uses a new class of protein binding reagents called SOMAmers® (slow off-rate modified aptamers) and allows the simultaneous precise measurement of over 1000 proteins. Exosomes were highly purified from the Du145 prostate cancer cell line, by pooling selected fractions from a continuous sucrose gradient (within the density range of 1.1 to 1.2 g/ml), and examined under standard conditions or with additional detergent treatment by the SOMAscan™ array (version 3.0). Lysates of Du145 cells were also prepared, and the profiles were compared. Housekeeping proteins such as cyclophilin-A, LDH, and Hsp70 were present in exosomes, and we identified almost 100 proteins that were enriched in exosomes relative to cells. These included proteins of known association with cancer exosomes such as MFG-E8, integrins, and MET, and also those less widely reported as exosomally associated, such as ROR1 and ITIH4. Several proteins with no previously known exosomal association were confirmed as exosomally expressed in experiments using individual SOMAmer® reagents or antibodies in micro-plate assays. Western blotting confirmed the SOMAscan™-identified enrichment of exosomal NOTCH-3, L1CAM, RAC1, and ADAM9. In conclusion, we describe here over 300 proteins of hitherto unknown association with prostate cancer exosomes and suggest that the SOMAmer®-based assay technology is an effective proteomics platform for exosome-associated biomarker discovery in diverse clinical settings. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Density cushion + dUC
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ TSG101/ L1CAM
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Omics
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ TSG101/ L1CAM
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD81/ CD9/ TSG101/ L1CAM
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV140042 1/1 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
dUC
Valencia K 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Valencia K, Luis-Ravelo D, Bovy N, Antón I, Martínez-Canarias S, Zandueta C, Ormazábal C, Struman I, Tabruyn S, Rebmann V, De Las Rivas J, Guruceaga E, Bandrés E, Lecanda F
Journal
Mol Oncol
Abstract
Bone metastasis represents one of the most deleterious clinical consequences arising in the context (show more...)Bone metastasis represents one of the most deleterious clinical consequences arising in the context of many solid tumors. Severe osteolysis results from tumor cell colonization of the bone compartment, a process which entails reciprocal exchange of soluble signals between tumor cells and their osseous microenvironment. Recent evidence indicates that tumor-intrinsic miRNAs are pleiotropic regulators of gene expression. But they are also frequently released in exosome-like vesicles (ELV). Yet the functional relevance of the transference of tumor-derived ELV and their miRNA cargo to the extracellular milieu during osseous colonization is unknown. Comparative transcriptomic profiling using an in vivo murine model of bone metastasis identified a repressed miRNA signature associated with high prometastatic activity. Forced expression of single miRNAs identified miR-192 that markedly appeased osseous metastasis in vivo, as shown by X-ray, bioluminescence imaging and microCT scans. Histological examination of metastatic lesions revealed impaired tumor-induced angiogenesis in vivo, an effect that was associated in vitro with decreased hallmarks of angiogenesis. Isolation and characterization of ELV by flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealed the ELV cargo enrichment in miR-192. Consistent with these findings, fluorescent labeled miR-192-enriched-ELV showed the in vitro transfer and release of miR-192 in target endothelial cells and abrogation of the angiogenic program by repression of proangiogenic IL-8, ICAM and CXCL1. Moreover, in vivo infusion of fluorescent labeled ELV efficiently targeted cells of the osseous compartment. Furthermore, treatment with miR-192 enriched ELV in a model of in vivo bone metastasis pre-conditioned osseous milieu and impaired tumor-induced angiogenesis, thereby reducing the metastatic burden and tumor colonization. Changes in the miRNA-cargo content within ELV represent a novel mechanism heavily influencing bone metastatic colonization, which is most likely relevant in other target organs. Mechanistic mimicry of this phenomenon by synthetic nanoparticles could eventually emerge as a novel therapeutic approach. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
Exosome-like vesicles
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + dUC
Protein markers
EV: Alix/ CD63/ TSG101
non-EV: Cell organelle protein
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
EV Depleted
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
Alix/ CD63/ TSG101
Detected contaminants
Cell organelle protein
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Wide-field
EV140284 2/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant 0.2 µm filter
Commercial
Microfluidics
Vaidyanathan R 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Vaidyanathan R, Naghibosadat M, Rauf S, Korbie D, Carrascosa LG, Shiddiky MJ, Trau M
Journal
Anal Chem
Abstract
Exosomes show promise as noninvasive biomarkers for cancer, but their effective capture and specific (show more...)Exosomes show promise as noninvasive biomarkers for cancer, but their effective capture and specific detection is a significant challenge. Herein, we report a multiplexed microfluidic device for highly specific capture and detection of multiple exosome targets using a tunable alternating current electrohydrodynamic (ac-EHD) methodology, referred to as nanoshearing. In our system, electrical body forces generated by ac-EHD act within nanometers of an electrode surface (i.e., within the electrical layer) to generate nanoscaled fluid flow that enhances the specificity of capture and also reduce nonspecific adsorption of weakly bound molecules from the electrode surface. This approach demonstrates the analysis of exosomes derived from cells expressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), and is also capable of specifically isolating exosomes from breast cancer patient samples. The device also exhibited a 3-fold enhancement in detection sensitivity in comparison to hydrodynamic flow based assays (LOD 2760 exosomes/?L for ac-EHD vs LOD 8300 exosomes/?L for hydrodynamic flow; (n = 3)). We propose this approach can potentially have relevance as a simple and rapid quantification tool to analyze exosome targets in biological applications. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
0.2 µm filter + Commercial + Microfluidics
Protein markers
EV: CD9/ HER2/ PSA
non-EV: None
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
EV-harvesting Medium
serum free
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Filtration steps
0.22µm or 0.2µm
Commercial kit
Total Exosome Isolation
Other
Name other isolation method
Microfluidics
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
HER2/ PSA
ELISA
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ HER2/ PSA
Characterization: Particle analysis
DLS
TRPS
EM
EM-type
cryo EM
Image type
Close-up
EV140221 1/2 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Srikanthan S 2014 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Srikanthan S, Li W, Silverstein RL, McIntyre TM
Journal
J Thromb Haemost
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Activated platelets shed microparticles from plasma membranes, but also release smalle (show more...)INTRODUCTION: Activated platelets shed microparticles from plasma membranes, but also release smaller exosomes from internal compartments. While microparticles participate in athero-thrombosis, little is known of exosomes in this process. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ex vivo biochemical experiments with human platelets and exosomes, and FeCl3 -induced murine carotid artery thrombosis. RESULTS: Both microparticles and exosomes were abundant in human plasma. Platelet-derived exosomes suppressed ex vivo platelet aggregation and reduced adhesion to collagen-coated microfluidic channels at high shear. Injected exosomes inhibited occlusive thrombosis in FeCl3 -damaged murine carotid arteries. Control platelets infused into irradiated, thrombocytopenic mice reconstituted thrombosis in damaged carotid arteries, but failed to do so after prior ex vivo incubation with exosomes.CD36 promotes platelet activation, and exosomes dramatically reduced platelet CD36.CD36 is also expressed by macrophages, where it binds and internalizes oxidized LDL and microparticles, supplying lipid to promote foam cell formation. Platelet exosomes inhibited oxidized-LDL binding and cholesterol loading into macrophages. Exosomes were not competitive CD36 ligands, but instead sharply reduced total macrophage CD36 content. Exosomal proteins, in contrast to microparticle or cellular proteins, were highly adducted by ubiquitin. Exosomes enhanced ubiquitination of cellular proteins, including CD36, and blockade of proteosome proteolysis with MG-132 rescued CD36 expression. Recombinant unanchored K48 poly-ubiquitin behaved similarly to exosomes, inhibiting platelet function, macrophage CD36 expression and macrophage particle uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet-derived exosomes inhibit athero-thrombotic processes by reducing CD36-dependent lipid loading of macrophages and by suppressing platelet thrombosis. Exosomes increase protein ubiquitination and enhance proteasome degradation of CD36. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (70th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
DNF
Focus vesicles
exosomes
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV: CD63/ CD9
non-EV: CD36
Proteomics
yes
Show all info
Study aim
Function
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 100,000 g and 150,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
120
Characterization: Protein analysis
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD9
Detected contaminants
CD36
Characterization: Particle analysis
EM
EM-type
transmission EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field