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You searched for: EV180030 (EV-TRACK ID)

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Experiment number
  • If needed, multiple experiments were identified in a single publication based on differing sample types, isolation protocols and/or vesicle types of interest.
Species
  • Species of origin of the EVs.
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
Details EV-TRACK ID Experiment nr. Species Sample type Isolation protocol First author Year EV-METRIC
EV180030 3/7 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant DG
dUC
Zhaohao Liao 2018 67%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhaohao Liao, Lorena Martin Jaular ORCID Icon, Estelle Soueidi, Mabel Jouve, Dillon C. Muth, Tine H. Schøyen, Tessa Seale, Norman J. Haughey, Matias Ostrowski, Clotilde Théry ORCID Icon & Kenneth W. Witwer
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was deve (show more...)Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was developed as a marker of reticulocyte EVs in the 1970s. Easily, quickly, and cheaply assayed, AChE activity has more recently been proposed as a generic marker for small extracellular vesicles (sEV) or exosomes, and as a negative marker of HIV-1 virions. To evaluate these proposed uses of AChE activity, we examined data from different EV and virus isolation methods using T-lymphocytic (H9, PM1 and Jurkat) and promonocytic (U937) cell lines grown in culture conditions that differed by serum content. When EVs were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation, no correlation between AChE activity and particle count was observed. AChE activity was detected in non-conditioned medium when serum was added, and most of this activity resided in soluble fractions and could not be pelleted by centrifugation. The serum-derived pelletable AChE protein was not completely eliminated from culture medium by overnight ultracentrifugation; however, a serum “extra-depletion” protocol, in which a portion of the supernatant was left undisturbed during harvesting, achieved near-complete depletion. In conditioned medium also, only small percentages of AChE activity could be pelleted together with particles. Furthermore, no consistent enrichment of AChE activity in sEV fractions was observed. Little if any AChE activity is produced by the cells we examined, and this activity was mainly present in non-vesicular structures, as shown by electron microscopy. Size-exclusion chromatography and iodixanol gradient separation showed that AChE activity overlaps only minimally with EV-enriched fractions. AChE activity likely betrays exposure to blood products and not EV abundance, echoing the MISEV 2014 and 2018 guidelines and other publications. Additional experiments may be merited to validate these results for other cell types and biological fluids other than blood. (hide)
EV-METRIC
67% (94th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
HIV-BaL infected
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + dUC
Protein markers
EV: / CD81/ CD63/ CD9
non-EV: AChE
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
Not specified
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
HIV-BaL infected
EV-producing cells
PM1
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
50
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 45 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
11
Lowest density fraction
6%
Highest density fraction
18%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
12
Sample volume (mL)
1
Orientation
Top-down
Rotor type
TH-641
Speed (g)
210000
Duration (min)
120
Fraction volume (mL)
1
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
35
Pelleting: duration (min)
40
Pelleting: rotor type
AH-629 (36 ml)
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD9/ CD63/ CD81
Other 1
Acetylcholinesterase assay
Detected EV-associated proteins
Not detected contaminants
AChE
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Not Reported
EV concentration
Yes
EV180030 5/7 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
qEV
Zhaohao Liao 2018 56%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhaohao Liao, Lorena Martin Jaular ORCID Icon, Estelle Soueidi, Mabel Jouve, Dillon C. Muth, Tine H. Schøyen, Tessa Seale, Norman J. Haughey, Matias Ostrowski, Clotilde Théry ORCID Icon & Kenneth W. Witwer
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was deve (show more...)Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was developed as a marker of reticulocyte EVs in the 1970s. Easily, quickly, and cheaply assayed, AChE activity has more recently been proposed as a generic marker for small extracellular vesicles (sEV) or exosomes, and as a negative marker of HIV-1 virions. To evaluate these proposed uses of AChE activity, we examined data from different EV and virus isolation methods using T-lymphocytic (H9, PM1 and Jurkat) and promonocytic (U937) cell lines grown in culture conditions that differed by serum content. When EVs were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation, no correlation between AChE activity and particle count was observed. AChE activity was detected in non-conditioned medium when serum was added, and most of this activity resided in soluble fractions and could not be pelleted by centrifugation. The serum-derived pelletable AChE protein was not completely eliminated from culture medium by overnight ultracentrifugation; however, a serum “extra-depletion” protocol, in which a portion of the supernatant was left undisturbed during harvesting, achieved near-complete depletion. In conditioned medium also, only small percentages of AChE activity could be pelleted together with particles. Furthermore, no consistent enrichment of AChE activity in sEV fractions was observed. Little if any AChE activity is produced by the cells we examined, and this activity was mainly present in non-vesicular structures, as shown by electron microscopy. Size-exclusion chromatography and iodixanol gradient separation showed that AChE activity overlaps only minimally with EV-enriched fractions. AChE activity likely betrays exposure to blood products and not EV abundance, echoing the MISEV 2014 and 2018 guidelines and other publications. Additional experiments may be merited to validate these results for other cell types and biological fluids other than blood. (hide)
EV-METRIC
56% (89th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + qEV
Protein markers
EV: / CD63
non-EV: AChE
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
Jurkat
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
50
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 45 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Commercial kit
qEV
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63
Detected contaminants
AChE
Other 1
Acetylcholinesterase assay
Detected EV-associated proteins
Detected contaminants
AChE
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Not Reported
EV concentration
Yes
EM
EM-type
Immuno-EM/ Transmission-EM
Image type
Close-up, Wide-field
EV180030 6/7 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant DG
dUC
Zhaohao Liao 2018 56%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhaohao Liao, Lorena Martin Jaular ORCID Icon, Estelle Soueidi, Mabel Jouve, Dillon C. Muth, Tine H. Schøyen, Tessa Seale, Norman J. Haughey, Matias Ostrowski, Clotilde Théry ORCID Icon & Kenneth W. Witwer
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was deve (show more...)Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was developed as a marker of reticulocyte EVs in the 1970s. Easily, quickly, and cheaply assayed, AChE activity has more recently been proposed as a generic marker for small extracellular vesicles (sEV) or exosomes, and as a negative marker of HIV-1 virions. To evaluate these proposed uses of AChE activity, we examined data from different EV and virus isolation methods using T-lymphocytic (H9, PM1 and Jurkat) and promonocytic (U937) cell lines grown in culture conditions that differed by serum content. When EVs were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation, no correlation between AChE activity and particle count was observed. AChE activity was detected in non-conditioned medium when serum was added, and most of this activity resided in soluble fractions and could not be pelleted by centrifugation. The serum-derived pelletable AChE protein was not completely eliminated from culture medium by overnight ultracentrifugation; however, a serum “extra-depletion” protocol, in which a portion of the supernatant was left undisturbed during harvesting, achieved near-complete depletion. In conditioned medium also, only small percentages of AChE activity could be pelleted together with particles. Furthermore, no consistent enrichment of AChE activity in sEV fractions was observed. Little if any AChE activity is produced by the cells we examined, and this activity was mainly present in non-vesicular structures, as shown by electron microscopy. Size-exclusion chromatography and iodixanol gradient separation showed that AChE activity overlaps only minimally with EV-enriched fractions. AChE activity likely betrays exposure to blood products and not EV abundance, echoing the MISEV 2014 and 2018 guidelines and other publications. Additional experiments may be merited to validate these results for other cell types and biological fluids other than blood. (hide)
EV-METRIC
56% (89th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
pseudotyped HIV-1 (NL4-3) infected
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
DG + dUC
Protein markers
EV: / CD63
non-EV: p24/ AChE
Proteomics
no
EV density (g/ml)
Not specified
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
pseudotyped HIV-1 (NL4-3) infected
EV-producing cells
Jurkat
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
50
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 45 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Density gradient
Density medium
Iodixanol
Type
Discontinuous
Number of initial discontinuous layers
4
Lowest density fraction
6%
Highest density fraction
18%
Total gradient volume, incl. sample (mL)
12
Sample volume (mL)
1
Orientation
Top-down
Rotor type
SW 41 Ti
Speed (g)
200000
Duration (min)
60
Fraction volume (mL)
2
Fraction processing
Centrifugation
Pelleting: volume per fraction
35
Pelleting: duration (min)
40
Pelleting: rotor type
SW 32 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63
Detected contaminants
p24
Not detected contaminants
AChE
Other 1
Acetylcholinesterase assay
Detected EV-associated proteins
Not detected contaminants
AChE
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV180030 2/7 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
qEV
Zhaohao Liao 2018 33%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhaohao Liao, Lorena Martin Jaular ORCID Icon, Estelle Soueidi, Mabel Jouve, Dillon C. Muth, Tine H. Schøyen, Tessa Seale, Norman J. Haughey, Matias Ostrowski, Clotilde Théry ORCID Icon & Kenneth W. Witwer
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was deve (show more...)Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was developed as a marker of reticulocyte EVs in the 1970s. Easily, quickly, and cheaply assayed, AChE activity has more recently been proposed as a generic marker for small extracellular vesicles (sEV) or exosomes, and as a negative marker of HIV-1 virions. To evaluate these proposed uses of AChE activity, we examined data from different EV and virus isolation methods using T-lymphocytic (H9, PM1 and Jurkat) and promonocytic (U937) cell lines grown in culture conditions that differed by serum content. When EVs were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation, no correlation between AChE activity and particle count was observed. AChE activity was detected in non-conditioned medium when serum was added, and most of this activity resided in soluble fractions and could not be pelleted by centrifugation. The serum-derived pelletable AChE protein was not completely eliminated from culture medium by overnight ultracentrifugation; however, a serum “extra-depletion” protocol, in which a portion of the supernatant was left undisturbed during harvesting, achieved near-complete depletion. In conditioned medium also, only small percentages of AChE activity could be pelleted together with particles. Furthermore, no consistent enrichment of AChE activity in sEV fractions was observed. Little if any AChE activity is produced by the cells we examined, and this activity was mainly present in non-vesicular structures, as shown by electron microscopy. Size-exclusion chromatography and iodixanol gradient separation showed that AChE activity overlaps only minimally with EV-enriched fractions. AChE activity likely betrays exposure to blood products and not EV abundance, echoing the MISEV 2014 and 2018 guidelines and other publications. Additional experiments may be merited to validate these results for other cell types and biological fluids other than blood. (hide)
EV-METRIC
33% (68th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + qEV
Protein markers
EV: / CD81/ CD63
non-EV: AChE
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
H9
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
50
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 45 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Commercial kit
qEV
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63/ CD81
Other 1
Acetylcholinesterase assay
Detected EV-associated proteins
Detected contaminants
AChE
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Not Reported
EV concentration
Yes
EV180030 1/7 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Zhaohao Liao 2018 29%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhaohao Liao, Lorena Martin Jaular ORCID Icon, Estelle Soueidi, Mabel Jouve, Dillon C. Muth, Tine H. Schøyen, Tessa Seale, Norman J. Haughey, Matias Ostrowski, Clotilde Théry ORCID Icon & Kenneth W. Witwer
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was deve (show more...)Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was developed as a marker of reticulocyte EVs in the 1970s. Easily, quickly, and cheaply assayed, AChE activity has more recently been proposed as a generic marker for small extracellular vesicles (sEV) or exosomes, and as a negative marker of HIV-1 virions. To evaluate these proposed uses of AChE activity, we examined data from different EV and virus isolation methods using T-lymphocytic (H9, PM1 and Jurkat) and promonocytic (U937) cell lines grown in culture conditions that differed by serum content. When EVs were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation, no correlation between AChE activity and particle count was observed. AChE activity was detected in non-conditioned medium when serum was added, and most of this activity resided in soluble fractions and could not be pelleted by centrifugation. The serum-derived pelletable AChE protein was not completely eliminated from culture medium by overnight ultracentrifugation; however, a serum “extra-depletion” protocol, in which a portion of the supernatant was left undisturbed during harvesting, achieved near-complete depletion. In conditioned medium also, only small percentages of AChE activity could be pelleted together with particles. Furthermore, no consistent enrichment of AChE activity in sEV fractions was observed. Little if any AChE activity is produced by the cells we examined, and this activity was mainly present in non-vesicular structures, as shown by electron microscopy. Size-exclusion chromatography and iodixanol gradient separation showed that AChE activity overlaps only minimally with EV-enriched fractions. AChE activity likely betrays exposure to blood products and not EV abundance, echoing the MISEV 2014 and 2018 guidelines and other publications. Additional experiments may be merited to validate these results for other cell types and biological fluids other than blood. (hide)
EV-METRIC
29% (60th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV:
non-EV: AChE
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
U937
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
50
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 45 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Other 1
Acetylcholinesterase assay
Detected EV-associated proteins
Detected contaminants
AChE
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Not Reported
EV concentration
Yes
EV180030 4/7 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC Zhaohao Liao 2018 29%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhaohao Liao, Lorena Martin Jaular ORCID Icon, Estelle Soueidi, Mabel Jouve, Dillon C. Muth, Tine H. Schøyen, Tessa Seale, Norman J. Haughey, Matias Ostrowski, Clotilde Théry ORCID Icon & Kenneth W. Witwer
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was deve (show more...)Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was developed as a marker of reticulocyte EVs in the 1970s. Easily, quickly, and cheaply assayed, AChE activity has more recently been proposed as a generic marker for small extracellular vesicles (sEV) or exosomes, and as a negative marker of HIV-1 virions. To evaluate these proposed uses of AChE activity, we examined data from different EV and virus isolation methods using T-lymphocytic (H9, PM1 and Jurkat) and promonocytic (U937) cell lines grown in culture conditions that differed by serum content. When EVs were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation, no correlation between AChE activity and particle count was observed. AChE activity was detected in non-conditioned medium when serum was added, and most of this activity resided in soluble fractions and could not be pelleted by centrifugation. The serum-derived pelletable AChE protein was not completely eliminated from culture medium by overnight ultracentrifugation; however, a serum “extra-depletion” protocol, in which a portion of the supernatant was left undisturbed during harvesting, achieved near-complete depletion. In conditioned medium also, only small percentages of AChE activity could be pelleted together with particles. Furthermore, no consistent enrichment of AChE activity in sEV fractions was observed. Little if any AChE activity is produced by the cells we examined, and this activity was mainly present in non-vesicular structures, as shown by electron microscopy. Size-exclusion chromatography and iodixanol gradient separation showed that AChE activity overlaps only minimally with EV-enriched fractions. AChE activity likely betrays exposure to blood products and not EV abundance, echoing the MISEV 2014 and 2018 guidelines and other publications. Additional experiments may be merited to validate these results for other cell types and biological fluids other than blood. (hide)
EV-METRIC
29% (60th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC
Protein markers
EV:
non-EV: AChE
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
PM1
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
50
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 45 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Other 1
Acetycholinesterase assay
Detected EV-associated proteins
Detected contaminants
AChE
Characterization: Particle analysis
EV180030 7/7 Homo sapiens Cell culture supernatant dUC
qEV
Zhaohao Liao 2018 22%

Study summary

Full title
All authors
Zhaohao Liao, Lorena Martin Jaular ORCID Icon, Estelle Soueidi, Mabel Jouve, Dillon C. Muth, Tine H. Schøyen, Tessa Seale, Norman J. Haughey, Matias Ostrowski, Clotilde Théry ORCID Icon & Kenneth W. Witwer
Journal
J Extracell Vesicles
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was deve (show more...)Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is found in abundance in reticulocytes and neurons and was developed as a marker of reticulocyte EVs in the 1970s. Easily, quickly, and cheaply assayed, AChE activity has more recently been proposed as a generic marker for small extracellular vesicles (sEV) or exosomes, and as a negative marker of HIV-1 virions. To evaluate these proposed uses of AChE activity, we examined data from different EV and virus isolation methods using T-lymphocytic (H9, PM1 and Jurkat) and promonocytic (U937) cell lines grown in culture conditions that differed by serum content. When EVs were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation, no correlation between AChE activity and particle count was observed. AChE activity was detected in non-conditioned medium when serum was added, and most of this activity resided in soluble fractions and could not be pelleted by centrifugation. The serum-derived pelletable AChE protein was not completely eliminated from culture medium by overnight ultracentrifugation; however, a serum “extra-depletion” protocol, in which a portion of the supernatant was left undisturbed during harvesting, achieved near-complete depletion. In conditioned medium also, only small percentages of AChE activity could be pelleted together with particles. Furthermore, no consistent enrichment of AChE activity in sEV fractions was observed. Little if any AChE activity is produced by the cells we examined, and this activity was mainly present in non-vesicular structures, as shown by electron microscopy. Size-exclusion chromatography and iodixanol gradient separation showed that AChE activity overlaps only minimally with EV-enriched fractions. AChE activity likely betrays exposure to blood products and not EV abundance, echoing the MISEV 2014 and 2018 guidelines and other publications. Additional experiments may be merited to validate these results for other cell types and biological fluids other than blood. (hide)
EV-METRIC
22% (50th percentile of all experiments on the same sample type)
 Reported
 Not reported
 Not applicable
EV-enriched proteins
Protein analysis: analysis of three or more EV-enriched proteins
non EV-enriched protein
Protein analysis: assessment of a non-EV-enriched protein
qualitative and quantitative analysis
Particle analysis: implementation of both qualitative and quantitative methods
electron microscopy images
Particle analysis: inclusion of a widefield and close-up electron microscopy image
density gradient
Isolation method: density gradient, at least as validation of results attributed to EVs
EV density
Isolation method: reporting of obtained EV density
ultracentrifugation specifics
Isolation method: reporting of g-forces, duration and rotor type of ultracentrifugation steps
antibody specifics
Protein analysis: antibody clone/reference number and dilution
lysate preparation
Protein analysis: lysis buffer composition
Study data
Sample type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample origin
Control condition
Focus vesicles
extracellular vesicle
Isolation protocol
Isolation protocol
  • Gives a short, non-chronological overview of the
    different steps of the isolation protocol.
    • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
    • DG = density gradient
    • UF = ultrafiltration
    • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
dUC + qEV
Protein markers
EV: AChE/ CD63
non-EV:
Proteomics
no
Show all info
Study aim
Technical analysis comparing/optimizing EV-related methods
Sample
Species
Homo sapiens
Sample Type
Cell culture supernatant
Sample Condition
Control condition
EV-producing cells
primary red blood cells
EV-harvesting Medium
EV-depleted medium
Preparation of EDS
overnight (16h) at >=100,000g
Isolation Method
Differential ultracentrifugation
dUC: centrifugation steps
Below or equal to 800 g
Between 800 g and 10,000 g
Between 10,000 g and 50,000 g
Between 50,000 g and 100,000 g
Pelleting: time(min)
90
Pelleting: rotor type
Type 45 Ti
Pelleting: speed (g)
100000
Wash: volume per pellet (ml)
50
Wash: time (min)
90
Wash: Rotor Type
Type 45 Ti
Wash: speed (g)
100000
Commercial kit
qEV
Characterization: Protein analysis
Protein Concentration Method
Not determined
Western Blot
Detected EV-associated proteins
CD63
Other 1
Acetylcholinesterase assay
Detected EV-associated proteins
AChE
Characterization: Particle analysis
NTA
Report type
Not Reported
EV concentration
Yes
1 - 7 of 7
  • dUC = differential ultracentrifugation
  • DG = density gradient
  • UF = ultrafiltration
  • SEC = size-exclusion chromatography
EV-TRACK ID
EV180030
species
Homo
sapiens
sample type
Cell
culture
cell type
PM1
Jurkat
Jurkat
H9
U937
PM1
primary
red
blood
cells
condition
HIV-BaL
infected
Control
condition
pseudotyped
HIV-1
(NL4-3)
infected
Control
condition
Control
condition
Control
condition
Control
condition
isolation protocol
DG
dUC
dUC
qEV
DG
dUC
dUC
qEV
dUC
dUC
dUC
qEV
Exp. nr.
3
5
6
2
1
4
7
EV-METRIC %
67
56
56
33
29
29
22